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עמוד בית
Wed, 22.05.24

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October 2018
Ahmad Hassan MD, Ronen Jaffe MD, Ronen Rubinshtein MD, Basheer Karkabi MD, David A. Halon MB ChB, Moshe Y. Flugelman MD and Barak Zafrir MD

Background: Contemporary data on clinical profiles and long-term outcomes of young adults with coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited.

Objectives: To determine the risk profile, presentation, and outcomes of young adults undergoing coronary angiography.

Methods: A retrospective analysis (2000–2017) of patients aged ≤ 35 years undergoing angiography for evaluation and/or treatment of CAD was conducted.

Results: Coronary angiography was performed in 108 patients (88% males): 67 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 41 non-ACS chest pain syndromes. Risk factors were similar: dyslipidemia (69%), positive family history (64%), smoking (61%), obesity (39%), hypertension (32%), and diabetes (22%). Eight of the ACS patients (12%) and 29 of the non-ACS (71%) had normal coronary arteries without subsequent cardiac events. Of the 71 with angiographic evidence of CAD, long-term outcomes (114 ± 60 months) were similar in ACS compared to non-ACS presentations: revascularization 41% vs. 58%, myocardial infarction 32% vs. 33%, and all-cause death 8.5% vs. 8.3%. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) was diagnosed in 25% of those with CAD, with higher rates of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.62, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.15–5.99) and revascularization (HR 4.30, 95%CI 2.01–9.18) during follow-up. Only 17% of patients with CAD attained a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treatment goal < 70 mg/dl.

Conclusions: CAD in young adults is associated with marked burden of traditional risk factors and high rates of future adverse cardiac events, regardless of acuity of presentation, especially in patients with FH, emphasizing the importance of detecting cardiovascular risk factors and addressing atherosclerosis at young age.

September 2017
Basheer Karkabi MD, Ronen Jaffe MD, David A. Halon MD, Amnon Merdler MD, Nader Khader MD, Ronen Rubinshtein MD, Jacob Goldstein MD, Barak Zafrir MD, Keren Zissman MD, Nissan Ben-Dov MD, Michael Gabrielly MD, Alex Fuks MD, Avinoam Shiran MD, Salim Adawi MD, Yaron Hellman MD, Johny Shahla, Salim Halabi MD, Shai Cohen MD, Irina Bergman MD, Sameer Kassem MD PhD MPH, Chen Shapira MD and Moshe Y. Flugelman MD

Background: Outcomes of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are strongly correlated to the time interval from hospital entry to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Current guidelines recommend a door to balloon time of < 90 minutes. 

Objectives: To reduce the time from hospital admission to PPCI and to increase the proportion of patients treated within 90 minutes. 

Methods: In March 2013 the authors launched a seven-component intervention program: 


  1. Direct patient evacuation by out-of-hospital emergency medical services to the coronary intensive care unit or catheterization laboratory

  2. Education program for the emergency department staff

  3. Dissemination of information regarding the urgency of the PPCI decision

  4. Activation of the catheterization team by a single phone call

  5. Reimbursement for transportation costs to on-call staff who use their own cars

  6. Improvement in the quality of medical records

  7. Investigation of failed cases and feedback 



Results: During the 14 months prior to the intervention, initiation of catheterization occurred within 90 minutes of hospital arrival in 88/133 patients(65%); during the 18 months following the start of the intervention, the rate was 181/200 (90%) (P < 0.01). The respective mean/median times to treatment were 126/67 minutes and 52/47 minutes (P < 0.01). Intervention also resulted in shortening of the time interval from hospital entry to PPCI on nights and weekends. 

Conclusions: Following implementation of a comprehensive intervention, the time from hospital admission to PPCI of STEMI patients shortened significantly, as did the proportion of patients treated within 90 minutes of hospital arrival. 

 

May 2016
Dan Levin, Salim Adawi MD, David A Halon MBChB, Avinoam Shiran MD, Ihab Asmer, Ronen Rubinshtein MD and Ronen Jaffe MD

Background: Radial artery occlusion (RAO) may occur following transradial catheterization, precluding future use of the vessel for vascular access or as a coronary bypass graft. Recanalization of RAO may occur; however, long-term radial artery patency when revascularization is more likely to be required has not been investigated. Transradial catheterization is usually performed via 5-Fr or 6-Fr catheters. Insertion of 7-Fr sheaths into the radial artery enables complex coronary interventions but may increase the risk of RAO. 

Objective: To assess the long-term radial artery patency following transradial catheterization via 7-Fr sheaths.

Methods: Antegrade radial artery blood flow was assessed by duplex-ultrasound in 43 patients who had undergone transradial catheterization via a 7-Fr sheath. 

Results: All patients had received intravenous unfractionated heparin with a mean activated clotting time (ACT) of 247 ± 56 seconds. Twenty-four patients (56%) had received a glycoprotein IIbIIIa inhibitor and no vascular site complications had occurred. Mean time interval from catheterization to duplex-ultrasound was 507 ± 317 days. Asymptomatic RAO was documented in 8 subjects (19%). Reduced body weight was the only significant univariate predictor of RAO (78 ± 11 vs. 89 ± 13 kg, P = 0.031). In a bivariate model using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, the combination of lower weight and shorter ACT offered best prediction of RAO (area under the ROC curve 0.813). 

Conclusions: Asymptomatic RAO was found at late follow-up in approximately 1 of 5 patients undergoing transradial catheterization via a 7-Fr sheath and was associated with lower body weight and shorter ACT. 

 

February 2016
Yuval Nachalon MD, Ohad Hilly MD, Karl Segal MD, Eyal Raveh MD, Dania Hirsch MD, Eyal Robenshtok MD, Ilan Shimon MD, Jacob Shvero MD, Carlos Benbassat MD and Aron Popovtzer MD

Background: Radiation exposure is a well-known risk factor for well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). However, disease characteristics, optimal treatment, time from exposure to disease appearance, and the effect on outcome of age at initial exposure have yet to be determined. 

Objectives: To identify the characteristics of radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma.

Methods: We retrieved the charts of all patients previously exposed to radiation who were diagnosed with WDTC between the years 1985 and 2013 in a tertiary referral center. 

Results: Forty-four patients were reviewed. Median time from radiation exposure to diagnosis was 23 years. These patients had higher rates of aerodigestive symptoms and distant metastases on presentation than seen in non-radiated patients. Patients who were exposed to radiation before age 15 years tended to develop the disease at a younger age but had a longer latency period (34.7 ± 15.3 vs. 16.3 ± 10 years, P < 0.001) and none had significantly higher rates of vocal cord palsy, hoarseness on presentation, or aggressive variants on histology compared to patients exposed to radiation at an older age. Disease-specific survival (DSS) was the same for both groups and were similar to that seen in the general population (95% 20 year DSS).

Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroid cancer has a more aggressive presentation and the age at exposure affects the presentation of disease. Nonetheless, appropriate treatment leads to a favorable prognosis.

 

June 2015
Amnon Y. Zlotnick MD ,Tamar Gaspar MD, Ronen Rubinshtein MD, David Halon MD and Amir Elami MD
December 2007
April 2007
B. S. Lewis, A. Shotan, S. Gottlieb, S. Behar, D. A. Halon, V. Boyko, J. Leor, E. Grossman, R. Zimlichman, A. Porath, M. Mittelman, A. Caspi and M. Garty

Background: Heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function is a major cause of cardiac disability.

Objectives: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and late clinical outcome of patients hospitalized with HF-PSF[1] on a nationwide basis in Israel.

Methods: The Israel nationwide HF survey examined prospectively 4102 consecutive HF patients admitted to 93 internal medicine and 24 cardiology departments in all 25 public hospitals in the country. Echocardiographic LV function measurements were available in 2845 patients (69%). The present report relates to the 1364 patients who had HF-PSF (LV ejection fraction ≥ 40%).

Results: Mortality of HF-PSF patients was high (in-hospital 3.5%, 6 months 14.2%, 12 months 22.0%), but lower than in patients with reduced systolic function (all P < 0.01). Mortality was higher in patients with HF as the primary hospitalization diagnosis (16.0% vs. 12.5% at 6 months, P = 0.07 and 26.2% vs. 18.0% at 12 months, P = 0.0002). Patients with HF-PSF who died were older (78 ± 10 vs. 71 ± 12 years, P < 0.001), more often female (P = 0.05) and had atrial fibrillation more frequently (44% vs. 33%, P < 0.01). There was also a relationship between mortality and pharmacotherapy: after adjustment for age and co-morbid conditions, mortality was lower in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (P = 0.0003) and angiotensin receptor blockers (P = 0.002) and higher in those receiving digoxin (P = 0.003) and diuretic therapy (P = 0.009).

Conclusions: This nationwide survey highlights the very high late mortality rates in patients hospitalized for HF without a decrease in systolic function. The findings mandate a focus on better evidence-based treatment strategies to improve outcome in HF-PSF patients.

 







[1] HF-PSF = heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function


A. Shiran, S. Adawi, I. Dobrecky-Mery, D. A. Halon, and Basil S. Lewis

Background: Echocardiographic ventricular function predicts prognosis and guides management in patients with acute coronary syndromes. In elderly patients, interpretation of echocardiographic measurements may be difficult, especially regarding assessment of diastolic left ventricular function.

Objectives: To examine the usefulness of echocardiographic systolic and echocardiographic diastolic LV[1] function measurements as predictors of long-term outcome in elderly patients with ACS[2].

Methods: We studied 142 consecutive elderly patients (≥ 70 years old, mean age 80 ± 6 years) with ACS who had an echocardiogram at index hospitalization and were in sinus rhythm. LV ejection fraction and diastolic mitral inflow pattern were examined as predictors of survival and repeat hospitalization over a period of 18–24 months.

Results: During the 2 year mean follow-up period 35/142 patients died (25%). Survival was lower in patients with EF[3] < 40% (n=42) as compared to EF ≥ 40% (n=100) (2 year survival rate 61% vs. 81%, P = 0.038). Patients with severe diastolic dysfunction (a restrictive LV filling pattern, n=7) had a lower survival rate than those without (43 vs. 76%, P = 0.009). The most powerful independent predictor of mortality was a restrictive filling pattern (hazard ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval 1.6–13.5), followed by a clinical diagnosis of heart failure on admission and older age. Rate of survival free of repeat hospitalization was low (33% at 18 months) but repeat hospitalization was not predicted either by EF or by a restrictive filling pattern.

Conclusions: As in the young, echocardiographic measurements of systolic and diastolic LV function predicted long-term survival in elderly patients with ACS. A restrictive filling pattern was the strongest independent predictor of mortality.

 







[1] LV = left ventricular

[2] ACS = acute coronary syndromes

[3] EF = ejection fraction


S. Alroy, M. Preis, M. Barzilai, A. Cassel, L. Lavie, D. A. Halon, O. Amir, B. S. Lewis and M. Y. Flugelman

Background: The etiology of chest pain with normal epicardial coronary arteries (cardiac syndrome X) seems to be related to endothelial cell dysfunction. Multiple factors are implicated in the pathophysiology, including evelated levels of homocysteine in the blood. Mutations in the MTHFR gene are associated with evelated levels of homocysteine.

Objectives: To test whether abnormal homocysteine metabolism is associated with syndrome X.

Methods: Forty-two women with chest pain, positive stress test and normal coronary arteries (syndrome X) and 100 asymptomatic women (controls) were studied for the C677T mutation. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and plasma levels of homocysteine were also measured. Endothelial cell function was studied in 10 patients with syndrome X and homozygosity for C677T mutation, and in 10 matched healthy controls. Folic acid (5 mg daily) was prescribed to syndrome X patients after initial measurements of ECF[1]. Following 13 weeks of treatment, ECF and blood tests were repeated and compared to baseline measurements.

Results: Homozygosity for C677T mutation was doubled in syndrome X vs. control (33%, 14/42 vs. 16%, 16/100, P < 0.02), and homocysteine levels were increased (9.16 ± 2.4 vs. 8.06 ± 2.6 μmol/L, P = 0.02). In the 10 homozygous patients, homocysteine levels decreased significantly after treatment with 5 mg/day folic acid (10 ± 3.3 vs. 5.4 ± 1.1 µmol/L, P = 0.004). Abnormal baseline ECF improved after treatment with folic acid: flow-mediated dilatation was greater (11.3 ± 7.9% vs. 0.7 ± 4.5%, P < 0.002), as was nitroglycerin-mediated dilatation (15.2 ± 9.0% vs. 5.6 ± 6.4%, P < 0.003). Frequency of chest pain episodes was significantly reduced after 13 weeks of folic acid treatment.

Conclusion: Our findings establish the association between the C677T mutation, endothelial cell dysfunction and cardiac syndrome X, and provide a novel and simple therapy for a subset of patients with syndrome X and homozygosity for the C677T mutation.






[1] ECF = endothelial cell function



 
May 2006
R. Rubinshtein, D.A. Halon, A. Kogan, R. Jaffe, B. Karkabi, T. Gaspar, M.Y. Flugelman, R. Shapira, A. Merdler and B.S. Lewis

Background: Emergency room triage of patients presenting with chest pain syndromes may be difficult. Under-diagnosis may be dangerous, while over0diagnosis may be costly.

Objectives: To report our initial experience with an emergency room cardiologist-based chest pain unit in Israel.

Methods: During a 5 week pilot study, we examined resource utilization and ER [1] diagnosis in 124 patients with chest pain of uncertain etiology or non-high risk acute coronary syndrome. First assessment was performed by the ER physicians and was followed by a second assessment by the CPU[2] team. Assessment was based on the following parameters: medical history and examination, serial electrocardiography, hematology, biochemistry and biomarkers for ACS[3], exercise stress testing and/or 64-slice multi-detector cardiac computed tomography angiography. Changes in decision between initial assessment and final CPU assessment with regard to hospitalization and utilization of resources were recorded.

Results: All patients had at least two cardiac troponin T measurements, 19 underwent EST[4], 9 echocardiography and 29 cardiac MDCT[5]. Fourteen patients were referred for early cardiac catheterization (same/next day). Specific working diagnosis was reached in 71/84 patients hospitalized, including unstable angina in 39 (31%) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction in 12 (10%). Following CPU assessment, 40/124 patients (32%) were discharged, 49 (39%) were admitted to Internal Medicine and 35 (28%) to the Cardiology departments. CPU assessment and extended resources allowed discharge of 30/101 patients (30%) who were initially identified as candidates for hospitalization after ER assessment. Furthermore, 13/23 (56%) of patients who were candidates for discharge after initial ER assessment were eventually hospitalized. Use of non-invasive tests was significantly greater in patients discharged from the ER (85% vs. 38% patients hospitalized) (P < 0.0001). The mean ER stay tended to be longer (14.9 ± 8.6 hours vs. 12.9 ± 11, P = NS) for patients discharged. At 30 days follow-up, there were no adverse events (myocardial infarction or death) in any of the 40 patients discharged from the ER after CPU assessment. One patient returned to the ER because of chest pain and was discharged after re-assessment. 

Conclusions: Our initial experience showed that an ER cardiologist-based chest pain unit improved assessment of patients presenting to the ER with chest pain, and enhanced appropriate use of diagnostic tests prior to decision regarding admission/discharge from the ER.


 




[1] ER = emergency room

[2] CPU = chest pain unit

[3] ACS = acute coronary syndrome

[4] EST = exercise stress testing

[5] MDCT = multi-detector cardiac computed tomography angiography


December 2002
Naomi A. Avramovitch MD, Moshe Y. Flugelman MD, David A. Halon MB ChB and Basil S. Lewis MD FRCP
June 2000
Ronen Jaffe, MD, David A. Halon, MBChB, Giora Weisz, MD and Basil S. Lewis, MD
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