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עמוד בית
Tue, 27.02.24

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May 2023
Aviv Schupper MD, Galia Barash MD, Lilach Benyamini MD, Revital Ben-Haim MD, Eli Heyman MD, Eli Lahat MD, Haim Bassan MD

Global developmental delay (GDD), defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains (e.g., gross/fine motor, cognitive, speech/language, personal/social, activities of daily living), affects 1–3% of children. According to the Israeli Ministry of Health, thyroid function studies are not indicated in children with GDD unless there are systemic features suggestive of thyroid dysfunction (https://www.health.gov.il/hozer/mr36_2012.pdf). This approach also exists in other countries with newborn screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism.

We present the case of an infant with GDD, who despite normal newborn screening tests, underwent a repeated extended thyroid function analysis (including T3 levels) leading to a diagnosis of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, a rare genetic neurodevelopmental syndrome.

October 2021
Mor Cohen-Eilig MD, Noa Bar Lis MSc, Ayelet Livneh MD, and Haim Bassan MD

Background: Cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) is a strong indicator of subsequent motor and developmental impairments in premature infants. There is a paucity of publications on biomarkers of cPVL.

Objectives: To determine C-reactive protein (CRP) levels during the first week of life of preterm infants who later developed cPVL and to identify the association between CRP levels with perinatal factors.

Methods: We retrospectively included infants ≤ 32 weeks gestation and/or birth weights ≤ 1500 grams; 17 with a cranial ultrasound diagnosis of cPVL and 54 with normal ultrasounds. Serum CRP levels were measured during days 1-7 (CRP1–7d) of life and subdivided into two timing groups: days 1–3 (CRP1–3d) and days 4-7 (CRP4–7d).

Results: The cPVL group had significantly higher mean CRP4–7d levels compared to controls (12.75 ± 21.2 vs. 2.23 ± 3.1, respectively, P = 0.03), while CRP1–3d levels were similar. CRP1–7d levels were significantly correlated with maximal fraction of inspired oxygen during the first 12 hours of life (FiO2-12h, r = 0.51, P < 0.001]. Additional risk factors were not associated with CRP levels.

Conclusions: Our finding of elevated CRP4-7d levels and later development of cPVL supports earlier studies on the involvement of inflammation in the pathogenesis of cPVL. Whether CRP could serve as a biomarker of cPVL and its correlation with outcomes, awaits further trials. Furthermore, the correlation between FiO2-12h and CRP1–7d levels suggest that hypoxia and/or hyperoxia may serve as a trigger in the activation of inflammation during the first days of life of preterm infants

January 2016
Haim Bassan MD, Shimrit Uliel-Sibony MD, Shlomit Katsav BSc, Mira Farber BSc and Riva Tauman MD

Background: It has been suggested that sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during pregnancy may adversely influence maternal as well as fetal well being.

Objectives: To examine the effect of maternal SDB on neonatal neurological examination and perinatal complications.

Methods: Pregnant women of singleton uncomplicated pregnancies were prospectively recruited from a community and hospital low risk obstetric surveillance. All participants completed a sleep questionnaire in the second trimester and underwent ambulatory sleep evaluation (WatchPAT, Itamar Medical, Caesarea, Israel). They were categorized as SDB (apnea hypopnea index > 5) and non-SDB. Maternal and newborn records were reviewed and a neonatal neurologic examination was conducted during the first 48 hours. 

Results: The study group included 44 women and full-term infants; 11 of the women (25%) had SDB. Mean maternal age of the SDB and non-SDB groups was 32.3 ± 2.8 and 32.5 ± 4.7 years, respectively (P = 0.86). Mean body mass index before the pregnancy in the SDB and non-SDB groups was 25.8 ± 4.7 and 22.0 ± 2.5 kg/m2, respectively (P = 0.028). No differences were found between infants born to mothers with SDB and non-SDB in birth weight (3353.8 ± 284.8 vs. 3379.1 ± 492.4 g), gestational age (39.5 ± 0.9 vs. 39.2 ± 1.5 weeks), 5 minute Apgar scores (9.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.9 ± 0.3), and neurologic examination scores (95.2 ± 3.9 vs. 94.6 ± 4.1). P value for all was not significant. 

Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that maternal mild SDB during pregnancy has no adverse effect on neonatal neurologic examination or on perinatal complications. 


July 2012
R. Marom, R. Lubetzky, F.B. Mimouni, H. Bassan, L. Ben Sira, I. Berger, S. Dollberg and D. Mandel

Background: Infants with severe intraventricular-periventricular hemorrhage (IVH) have higher absolute nucleated red blood cell counts (aNRBC) at birth (a marker of intrauterine hypoxia) than controls. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is known to be associated with prenatal and postnatal events. Whether PVL is also linked to intrauterine hypoxia is unknown.

Objectives: To test the hypothesis that infants with PVL have higher aNRBC counts at birth than controls.

Methods: We studied 14 very low birth weight infants with PVL and compared them with 14 pair-matched controls without PVL. Head ultrasound scans were performed in all infants on days 3–5 and 21–25 of life. Paired tests, Fisher exact tests and stepwise logistic regression were performed for analysis.

Results: Groups were similar for gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM), Apgar scores, IVH, and aNRBC counts. PVL correlated significantly with low partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and IVH (P < 0.01). In logistic regression, when GA, gender, PROM, antenatal steroid therapy, 1 (or 5) minute Apgar scores, IVH grade, nosocomial sepsis, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), need for pressors, aNRBC counts and lowest pCO2 were used as independent variables, pCO2 (P = 0.002), IVH grade (P = 0.001), GA (P = 0.038), NEC (P = 0.061) and use of dopamine (P = 0.010) remained in the analysis (total R2 = 68.2%).

Conclusions: In contrast to severe IVH, aNRBC counts do not predict the development of PVL.

August 2011
A. Fattal-Valevski, H. Bassan, J. Bernheim, B. Redianu, Y. Leitner and S. Harel

Background: Epidemiological studies have found that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is closely related to hypertension and is associated with a reduced number of nephrons that may be a predisposing factor for the development of hypertension.

Objectives: To determine whether blood pressure levels of children with a history of IUGR are higher than those of children without IUGR.

Methods: Diastolic, systolic and mean arterial blood pressure levels were measured in 64 children aged 8–12 years old with a history of IUGR (mean birth weight 1780
± 422 g) and compared with 64 age and gender-matched controls who had a normal birth weight (mean 3134 ±  594 g).

Results: Contrary to previous reports, systolic blood pressure values were significantly lower in the IUGR group compared to the controls (91.6
±11.3 vs. 96.6 ±13.9, P = 0.027). There was no difference in diastolic blood pressure values. In the IUGR group, systolic blood pressure correlated significantly with current weight (P < 0.01) and body mass index (P < 0.05), and diastolic blood pressure with weight gain between age 2 and 4 years (P < 0.05). None of the blood pressure values correlated with birth weight.

Conclusions: Children born with IUGR have lower systolic blood pressure levels than matched controls at age 8–12 years. These data indicate that postnatal weight gain in this group has a greater impact on systolic blood pressure than birth weight.

January 2011
Y. Landau, I. Berger, R. Marom, D. Mandel, L. Ben Sira, A. Fattal-Valevski, T. Peylan, L. Levi, S. Dolberg and H. Bassan

Background: Major advances in the treatment of perinatal asphyxial–hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy followed the translation of hypothermia animal studies into successful randomized controlled clinical trials that substantially influenced the current standard of care.

Objectives: To present our preliminary experience with the first cases of clinical application of therapeutic hypothermia for PA-HIE[1] in what we believe is the first report on non-experimental hypothermia for PA-HIE from Israel.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records, imaging scans, electroencephalograms and outcome data of the six identified asphyxiated newborns who were managed with hypothermia in our services in 2008–2009.

Results: All asphyxiated newborns required resuscitation and were encephalopathic. Systemic hypothermia (33.5ºC) was begun at a median age of 4.2 hours of life (range 2.5–6 hours) and continued for 3 days. All six infants showed a significantly depressed amplitude integrated electroencephalography background, and five had electrographic seizures. One infant died (16%) after 3.5 days. Major complications included fat necrosis and hypercalcemia (n=1), pneumothorax (n=1), and meconium aspiration syndrome (n=2). None of the infants developed major bleeding. Neurodevelopmental follow-up of the five surviving infants at median age 7.2 months (4.1–18.5 months) revealed developmental delays (Battelle screening), with their motor scores ranging from -1 to +1 standard deviation (Bayley scale). None developed feeding problems, oculomotor abnormalities, spasticity or seizures.

Conclusions: Our preliminary experience with this novel modality in a large Tel Aviv neonatal service is consistent with the clinical findings of published trials.

[1] PA-HIE = perinatal asphyxial–hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

November 2001
Aviva Fattal-Valevski, MD, Jacques Bernheim, MD, Yael Leitner, MD, Bela Redianu, RN, Haim Bassan, MD and Shaul Harel, MD

Background: Low birth weight has been shown to be strongly related to hypertension in adult life.

Objective: To determine whether blood pressure is higher in children with intruterine growth retardation than in control subjects.

Methods: Blood pressure was measured in 58 children aged 4-6 years with IUGR and in 58 age-matched controls. The control children, whose birth weight was appropriate for gestational age, were also matched for gestational age.

Results: The children with IUGR had significantly higher mean values of systolic (p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressures (p<0.05) and mean arterial pressure (p<0.05). Significant differences in blood pressure values were found between preterm IUGR (n=21) and preterm controls (p<0.05).

Conclusion: These data indicate that children with IUGR may be at higher risk of hypertension already in childhood.

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