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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.07.24

Search results

October 2023
Keren Zloto MD, Eyal Krispin MD, Anat Shmueli MD, Eran Hadar MD, Lina Salman MD MSc

Background: The administration of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) is standard practice for management of threatened preterm birth. Its benefit, especially in small for gestational age (SGA) late preterm, is unclear.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of ACS on perinatal outcome of late preterm SGA neonates.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all women carrying a singleton gestation who had late preterm delivery (34–36 gestational weeks) of SGA neonates at a single tertiary university-affiliated medical center (July 2012–December 2017). Exclusion criteria included termination of pregnancy, intrauterine fetal death, and birth weight ≥ 10th percentile. Outcomes were compared between ACS and non-ACS treatment prior to delivery. Neonatal composite outcome included neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, and transient tachypnea.

Results: Overall, 228 women met inclusion criteria; 102 (44.7%) received ACS and 126 did not (55.3%). Median birth weight among the non-ACS group was significantly higher (1896.0 vs. 1755.5 grams P < 0.001). Rates of NICU and jaundice requiring phototherapy were higher among the ACS group (53.92% vs. 31.74%, P = 0.01; 12.74% vs. 5.55%, P = 0.05, respectively). Composite neonatal outcome was significantly higher among the ACS group (53.92% vs. 32.53%, odds ratio [OR] 2.42, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.41–4.15, P = 0.01). After adjustment for potential confounders, this association remained significant (OR 2.15, 95%CI 1.23–3.78, P = 0.007).

Conclusions: ACS given during pregnancy did not improve respiratory outcome for SGA late preterm neonates. ACS may be associated with a worse outcome.

January 2023
Naama Hermann MD, Pnina Mor CNM PhD, Orit Kaidar-Person MD, Rinat Bernstein-Molho MD, Mali Brodsky RN MSc, Dana Madorsky Feldman MD, Anath A. Flugelman MD MPH MA, Hadar Aboody Nevo MD, Danna Meshoulam Avital MD, Miri Sklair-Levy MD, Eitan Friedman MD PhD, Tanir M. Allweis MD

Background: Population screening for the BRCA mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish women was recently implemented in Israel and is expected to lead to a 10-fold increase in the diagnosis of asymptomatic carriers. Performing the screening follow-up within multidisciplinary dedicated clinics for carriers is recommended for early detection and risk reduction.

Objectives: To determine the availability, capacity, and practices of dedicated screening clinic for BRCA carriers in Israel.

Methods: A telephone-based survey of all public hospitals in Israel was conducted October 2020 to August 2021 to determine whether they had a dedicated clinic. Dedicated clinics were defined as multidisciplinary screening clinics offering at least breast and gynecological screening and risk reducing services on site. The clinic director or nurse navigator answered a questionnaire about screening practices followed by a semi-structured interview.

Results: Of the ten dedicated BRCA clinics found in Israel, nine participated. Approximately 4500 BRCA carriers are currently being followed. No specialized clinics are available in the southern district or in the northernmost half of the northern district of Israel, leading to a disparity between periphery and center. Screening recommendations, although asserted as adhering to international guidelines, vary among clinics including age at initiating of clinical exam, use of adjunct imaging modalities, and follow-up during lactation and after risk reducing surgery.

Conclusions: There is a suboptimal distribution of dedicated clinics for BRCA carriers in Israel. Nationally centralized attempt to create guidelines that will unify screening practices is warranted, especially considering the expected increase in demand.

June 2021
Zvi Shimoni MD, Vendi Danilov MD, Shoshana Hadar MD, and Paul Froom MD

Background: Recommendations for a head computed tomography (CT) scan in elderly patients without a loss of consciousness after a traumatic brain injury and without neurological findings on admission and who are not taking oral anticoagulant therapy, are discordant.

Objectives: To determine variables associated with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and the need for neurosurgery in elderly patients after low velocity head trauma

Methods: In a regional hospital, we retrospectively selected 206 consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years with head CT scans ordered in the emergency department because of low velocity head trauma. Outcome variables were an ICH and neurological surgery. Independent variables included age, sex, disability, neurological findings, facial fractures, mental status, headache, head sutures, loss of consciousness, and anticoagulation therapy.

Results: Fourteen patients presented with ICH (6.8%, 3.8–11.1%) and three (1.5%, 0.3–4.2%) with a neurosurgical procedure. One patient with a coma (0.5, 0.0–2.7) died 2 hours after presentation. All patients who required surgery or died had neurological findings. Reducing head CT scans by 97.1% (93.8–98.9%) would not have missed any patient with possible surgical utility. Twelve of the 14 patients (85.7%) with an ICH had neurological findings, post-trauma loss of consciousness or a facial fracture were not present in 83.5% (95% confidence interval 77.7–88.3) of the cohort.

Conclusions: None of our patients with neurological findings required neurosurgery. Careful palpation of the facial bones to identify facial fractures might aid in the decision whether to perform a head CT scan.

January 2021
Uriel Levinger MD, Shoshana Hadar MD, and George Habib MD
July 2019
Hadar Simchony, Gil Diamant PhD, Zvi Ram MD and Ilan Volovitz PhD

Background: Tumor treating fields (TTFields) are low-intensity, intermediate frequency electric fields that affect proliferating cells. TTFields are FDA approved for treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma. Combining TTFields with immunotherapy is a rational approach due to their different mechanisms of action (MOA) and to the ability of TTFields to induce immunogenic cell death. Conversely, TTFields may interfere with immune functions critical for effective T-cell responses.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of TTFields on pivotal antitumoral T-cell functions.

Methods: T-cells from healthy donor peripheral blood (PB) or from viably dissociated human glioblastoma samples were cultured under normal or TTFields conditions, with or without superantigen stimulation. Multiparametric flow cytometry (8-color) was used to assess T-cell responses by monitoring select pivotal functions: proliferation (CFSE), IFNγ secretion, cytotoxic degranulation (CD107a), and activation/exhaustion (PD-1). Cellular viability was assessed in a dedicated assay. A chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell-based assay directly evaluated cellular cytotoxicity.

Results: Activated PB T-cells and tumor-infiltrating T-cells (TILs) preserved all monitored anti- tumoral functions under TTFields, apart from proliferation. This finding also applied specifically to PD-1 + TILs, comprised predominantly of tumor antigen-specific cells. Activated T-cells that attempted to proliferate under TTFields demonstrated decreased viability, in line with TTField MOA. Small or no reduction in viability was found in T-cells that did not attempt to proliferate, whether activated or resting.

Conclusions: All monitored anti-tumoral T cell functions, except for proliferation, were unhindered by TTFields. Our results support further investigation into combinations of TTFields with T-cell based immunotherapeutic approaches.

April 2019
Itai Gross MD, Ayalon Hadar BSc, Miklosh Bala MD and Saar Hashavya MD

Background: Horse riding has become increasingly popular in recent years and is a common activity among children. As a result, pediatric horse-related injuries are frequently encountered in emergency departments.

Objectives: To examine the characteristics of horse-related injuries in the pediatric population.

Methods: We collected and analyzed the data on all pediatric horse-related injuries presented to a tertiary hospital, level one trauma center, during the years 2006–2016.

Results: A total of 53 children with horse-related injuries were documented. Forty-two patients were male (79%) and their mean age was 11.13 ± 4.72 years. The most common mechanism of injury was falling off a horse (31 patients, 58%) and the most common type of injury was skeletal (32 patients, 60%). Head injuries occurred in 16 patients (30%) and facial injuries in 12 (23%). The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 10.5 ± 6.32, and 15 patients (28%) had severe trauma (ISS > 15). Twenty-nine patients (55%) required trauma team intervention, 12 (23%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 24 (45%) required surgery. The mean length of hospitalization was 4.3 ± 3.14 days.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that horse-related trauma may involve serious injuries and it exhibits typical injury patterns. Young boys are at highest risk. The potential severity of these injuries merits a thorough evaluation. We suggest that these injuries be triaged appropriately, preferably to a medical facility with proper trauma capabilities.

January 2019
Sagee Tal MD, Yochai Adir MD, Nili Stein MPH, Hadar Shalom MSc, Orit Lache MSc, Andrew Levy MD, PhD and Michal Shteinberg MD

Background: Frequent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbators are at a higher risk of adverse health outcomes when compared to infrequent exacerbators. A COPD frequent exacerbator phenotype and its definition has been reported. Haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism has been associated with differing clinical outcomes in cardiovascular and renal disease. The Hp 2-2 phenotype has been found to have bacteriostatic properties, while the Hp 1-1 phenotype was found to be associated with infections.

Objectives: To determine the correlation in haptoglobin phenotypes and the frequent exacerbator status compared to COPD non-exacerbators.

Methods: Inclusion criteria included previous diagnosis of COPD and presence of at least two documented exacerbations of COPD in the previous 12 months (frequent exacerbator group) or absence of such exacerbations in the previous 24 months (non-exacerbator group). Descriptive data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test and the nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed.

Results: The multivariate logistic regression yielded a model in which haptoglobin phenotype did not have a statistically significant association with frequent exacerbator status. Smoking status was found to be negatively related with the frequent exacerbator status (odds ratio [OR] 0.240, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.068–0.843, P = 0.03). Number of pack-years was negatively related to being a frequent exacerbator (OR 0.979, 95%CI 0.962–0.996, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: We found no relationship between haptoglobin polymorphism and frequent exacerbator status. However, frequent exacerbator status had a statistically significant association with COPD Assessment Test scores and pack-years and a negative correlation with current smoking status.

November 2018
Haim Shmuely MD, Baruch Brenner MD, David Groshar MD, Nir Hadari MD, Ofer Purim MD, Meital Nidam MD, Merab Eligalashvili MD, Jacob Yahav MD and Hanna Bernstine MD
September 2018
Keren Cohen-Hagai MD, Dan Feldman MD, Tirza Turani-Feldman BOT, Ruth Hadary MD, Shilo Lotan MD and Yona Kitay-Cohen MD

Background: Magnesium is an essential intracellular cation. Magnesium deficiency is common in the general population and its prevalence among patients with cirrhosis is even higher. Correlation between serum levels and total body content is poor because most magnesium is intracellular. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is a subclinical phase of hepatic encephalopathy with no overt symptoms. Cognitive exams can reveal minor changes in coordination, attention, and visuomotor function, whereas language and verbal intelligence are usually relatively spared.

Objectives: To assess the correlation between intracellular and serum magnesium levels and minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

Methods: Outpatients with a diagnosis of compensated liver cirrhosis were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded study. Patients were recruited for the study from November 2013 to January 2014, and were randomly assigned to a control (placebo) or an interventional (treated with magnesium oxide) group. Serum and intracellular magnesium levels were measured at enrollment and at the end of the study. Cognitive function was assessed by a specialized occupational therapist.

Results: Forty-two patients met the inclusion criteria, 29 of whom were included in this study. Among these, 83% had abnormal cognitive exam results compatible with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. While only 10% had hypomagnesemia, 33.3% had low levels of intracellular magnesium. Initial intracellular and serum magnesium levels positively correlated with cognitive performance.

Conclusions: Magnesium deficiency is common among patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. We found an association between magnesium deficiency and impairment in several cognitive function tests. This finding suggests involvement of magnesium in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

August 2018
Haim Shmuely MD, Baruch Brenner MD, David Groshar MD, Nir Hadari MD, Ofer Purim MD, Meital Nidam MD, Merab Eligalashvili MD, Jacob Yahav MD and Hanna Bernstine MD

Background: Evidence has been emerging that Helicobacter pylori may also impact colorectal cancer (CRC). Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging can predict overall survival in CRC patients.

Objectives: To determine a possible association between H. pylori seropositivity and all-cause mortality among CRC patients evaluated by PET/CT scans.

Methods: This prospective cohort study was comprised of 110 consecutive CRC patients who had undergone a PET/CT evaluation in a tertiary academic medical center. Data included demographics, body mass index (BMI), tumor node metastasis stage at diagnosis, treatment, time from diagnosis to PET/CT, and PET/CT findings. All patients were tested for anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and followed for 36 months from the day of the PET/CT scan. Mortality was documented. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of H. pylori serological status.

Results: During the follow-up period, of the 110 CRC patients 41 (37.3%) died and 69 (62.7%) survived. Of the 41 patients, 26 (63.4%) were H. pylori seropositive and 15 (36.6%) were seronegative. Multivariate analysis showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with increased mortality (HR 3.46, 95% confidence interval 1.63–7.32), stage IV at diagnosis, metastatic disease found on PET/CT, longer time from diagnosis to PET/CT, lower BMI, and older age.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that H. pylori infection may be a risk factor for all-cause mortality among CRC patients who are evaluated by PET/CT. Multicenter studies with larger patient groups are needed to confirm our findings.

May 2018
Ido Laish MD, Amir Mari MD, Batya Mannasse MSc, Ruth Hadary MD, Fred Meir Konikoff PhD, Aliza Amiel PhD and Yona Kitay-Cohen MD

Background: Shortened telomeres were found in patients with cirrhosis, probably reflecting chronic liver injury, continuous regeneration, and destruction of hepatic nodules.

Objectives: To test whether telomere shortening is a general marker of cirrhosis, independent of disease etiology.

Methods: We evaluated telomere length in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis (largely a late sequela of steatohepatitis) compared to patients with cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis B and C (HBV/HCV). We also evaluated telomere aggregates, a sensitive parameter of telomere dysfunction and genetic instability. We analyzed peripheral lymphocytes from 25 patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis, 15 patients with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis, and 20 age-matched controls. Telomere length was analyzed using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Aggregate size was divided into three fusion groups of 2–5, 6–10, and 11–15 telomeres, relative to the size of a single telomere.

Results: Shorter telomere length was found in patients with cirrhosis from all three etiologies (mean 121.3 ± 24.1) compared to controls (mean 63.5 ± 23.5). In contrast, there was significantly more fusion of > 5 telomeres only in the HBV/HCV cirrhosis group compared to healthy controls (P = 0.023), but not in the cryptogenic cirrhosis group.

Conclusions: While shortened telomeres in peripheral lymphocytes are a general marker of liver cirrhosis, telomere aggregates may signify a more sensitive genetic instability parameter for the diverse, etiology-based malignant potential of cirrhosis. This finding is in agreement with the well-known higher tendency toward developing hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis relative to steatohepatitis.

June 2017
Hadar Moran-Lev MD, Dror Mandel MD, Yosef Weisman MD, Amit Ovental and Ronit Lubetzky MD

Background: Israel is a country with a sunny climate; however, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common findings in certain populations whose exposure to sunlight is limited. Medical residency is known for long indoor working hours, thus theoretically limiting the opportunities for sun exposure.

Objectives: To evaluate whether the vitamin D status among residents in a single medical center in Tel Aviv is below the normal range.

Methods: Forty-six residents (28 females, 18 males, average age 33.9 ± 2.8 years) in three residency programs (internal medicine, general surgery/obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics) were recruited. Demographic data, personal lifestyle, physical activity details and sun exposure duration were obtained by a questionnaire. Serum levels for 25(OH)D were analyzed by a radioimmunoassay.

Results: The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 29.8 ± 5.8 ng/ml. According to Institute of Medicine definitions, none of the residents were vitamin D deficient and only two residents (4%) were vitamin D insufficient (15 ng/ml each). The level of 25(OH)D was similar among the various medical specialties. The 25(OH)D levels correlated with the duration of sun exposure and the number of offspring (regression analysis: R2 = 9.2%, P < 0.04 and R2 = 8.9%, P < 0.04, respectively), but not with nutritional data, blood chemistry, or extent of physical activity. 

Conclusions: Most of the residents maintained normal or near normal 25(OH)D levels, indicating that the residency program itself did not pose a significant risk for vitamin D deficiency. 


September 2013
D. Guttman, A. Mizrachi, T. Hadar, G. Bachar, Y. Hamzani, S. Marx and J. Shvero
 Background: Voice restoration following total laryngectomy is an important part of patients’ rehabilitation and long-term quality of life.

Objectives: To evaluate the long-term outcome of indwelling voice prostheses inserted during (primary procedure) or after (secondary procedure) total laryngectomy.

Methods: The study group included 90 patients who underwent total laryngectomy and tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) with placement of voice prosthesis at a tertiary medical center during the period 1990–2008. Background, clinical and outcome data were collected by medical file review. Findings were compared between patients in whom TEP was performed as a primary or a secondary procedure.

Results: TEP was performed as a primary procedure in 64 patients and a secondary procedure in 26. Corresponding rates of satisfactory voice rehabilitation were 84.4% and 88.5% respectively. There was no association of voice quality with either receipt of adjuvant radiation/chemoradiation or patient age. The average lifetime of the voice prosthesis was 4.2 months for primary TEP and 9.06 months for secondary TEP (p = 0.025).

Conclusions: Primary TEP provides almost immediate and satisfactory voice rehabilitation. However, it is associated with a significantly shorter average prosthesis lifetime than secondary TEP. Chemoradiotherapy and patient age do not affect voice quality with either procedure.

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