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עמוד בית
Sun, 26.05.24

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May 2012
J. Mejia-Gomez, T. Feigenber, S. Arbel-Alon, L. Kogan and A. Benshushan

For the past 15 years gynecological oncologists have been seeking ways to preserve woman’s fertility when treating invasive cervical cancer. For some women with small localized invasive cervical cancers, there is now hope for pregnancy after treatment. Many cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed in young woman who wish to preserve their fertility. As more women are delaying childbearing, fertility preservation has become an important consideration. The standard surgical treatment for stage IA2-IB1 cervical cancer is a radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. This surgery includes removal of the uterus and cervix, radical resection of the parametrial tissue and upper vagina, and complete pelvic lymphadenectomy. Obviously the standard treatment does not allow women future childbearing. Radical trachelectomy is a fertility-sparing surgical approach developed in France in 1994 by Dr. Daniel Dargent for the treatment of early invasive cervical cancer. Young women wishing to bear children in the future may be candidates for fertility-preservation options. The radical trachelectomy operation has been described and performed abdominally, assisted vaginally by laparoscopy and robotically. In this review we discuss the selection criteria for radical trachelectomy, the various possible techniques for the operation, the oncological and obstetric outcomes, and common complications.


February 2011
Y. Naaman, D. Shveiky, I. Ben-Shachar, A. Shushan, J. Mejia-Gomez and A. Benshushan

Background: Uterine sarcoma constitutes a highly malignant group of uterine tumors. It accounts for 2–6% of uterine malignancies and its incidence is 1.7 in 100,000 women. The three most common variants of uterine sarcoma are endometrial stromal sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma and carcinosarcoma. Based on relatively small case series, the literature provides little information on the risk factors, the natural course of the disease and the preferred treatment.

Objectives: To evaluate uterine sarcoma patients treated in a tertiary referral center in Israel over a 20 year period (1980–2005).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the charts of 40 uterine sarcoma patients, including their tumor characteristics, stage at diagnosis, treatment modalities, follow-up and survival.

Results: The patients’ mean age was 53 years (range 32–76); 30% of the patients had carcinosarcoma, 55% had leiomyosarcoma and 15% had ESS[1]. Half of the patients presented with stage I disease, 23% stage II, 10% stage III and 15% stage IV. Thirty-nine patients were treated by surgery. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered to 39% of the patients, adjuvant chemotherapy to 21% and combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy to 9%. The mean follow-up period was 44 months, at which time disease had recurred in 44% of the patients. The disease stage was correlated with the 5-year survival rate, which was 73.1% for stages I-II and 22.2% for stages III- IV.

Conclusions: In accordance with other larger studies our data show that the only prognostic factor that was significantly correlated with prognosis was the stage of the disease at diagnosis. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, survival has not improved over the last 25 years.

[1] ESS = endometrial stromal sarcoma

July 2010
February 2001
Ma C. Gutierrez-Ruiz, PhD, Luis E. Gomez Quiroz, MSc, Elizabeth Hernandez, MSc, Leticia Bucio, PhD, Veronica Souza, MSc, Luis Llorente, PhD and David Kershenobich, PhD

Background: Inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and reactive oxygen species. are associated with the pathology of chronic liver disease. Hepatocytes are generally considered as targets but not producers of these important mediators.

Objectives: To investigate whether cells of hepatocellular lineage are a potential source of various cytokines we estimated the expression and secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha, transforming growth factor beta 1 and interleukins I beta, 6 and 8 in the culture of well-differentiated human HepG2 cells treated for 24 hours with ethanol, acetaldehyde and lipopolysaccharide. Lipid peroxidation damage, glutathione content and glutathione perox­idase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity were also determined.

Methods: HepG2 cells were treated for 24 hours with ethanol (50 mM), acetaldehyde (175 ìM) and LPS (1 ìg/ml). TNF-á, TGF­-â, L-1â, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and secretion by en­zyme-linked immunoassay. Lipid peroxidation damage, glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined spectrophotometrically.

Results: Exposure to ethanol for 24 hours induced the expression of TNF-á and TGF- â1. secretion of IL-1â and TGF-â1 and decreased catalase activity. Acetaldehyde markedly increased TNF-á and IL-8 expression, stimulated IL-1â and IL-8 secretion, increased lipid peroxidation damage and decreased catalase activity, while LPS exposure induced the expression of TNF-á. TGF- â1, IL-6 and IL-8, the secretion of TGF-â1, IL-1â, IL-6 and IL-8, and a decrease in catalase activity. No change in GSH, GSHPx or SOD was found in any experimental condition.

Conclusions: The present studies confirm and extend the notion that hepatocytes respond to ethanol, acetaldehyde and LPS-producing cytokines. Oxidative stress produced by the toxic injury plays an important role in this response through up­regulation of inflammatory cytokines.

Carlos Alberto Aguilar-Salinas, MD, Onix Arita Melzer, MD, Leobardo Sauque Reyna, MD, Angelina Lopez, BSc, Ma Luisa Velasco Perez, RN, Luz E. Guillen, BSc, Francisco Javier Gomez Perez, MD and Juan A. Rull Rodrigo, MD

Background: Information is lacking on the effects of hormone replacement therapy in women with diabetes, especially during moderate chronic hyperglycemia.

Objectives: To study the effects of HRT on the lipid profile and the low density lipoprotein subclass distribution in women with type 2 diabetes under satisfactory and non-satisfactory glycemic control.

Methods: Fifty-four postmenopausal women after a 6 week run-in diet were randomized to receive either placebo(HbAlc <8%, n=13 HbAlc >8%, n=17) or HRT (HbAlc<8%, n=11 HbAlc >8%, n=13) for 12 weeks. HRT consisted of cyclical conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg/day plus medrogestone 5 mg/day. At the beginning and at the end of each treatment period the LDL subclass distribution was estimated by density gradient ultracentrifugation.

Results: At the baseline and during the study, the HbAlc level was significantly higher in hyperglycemic patients than in the near-normoglycemic controls (baseline 10.2±2.9 vs. 6.5±0.7%, P<0.01). They showed a trend for higher total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and lower high density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared to near-normoglycemic con­trols, as well as significantly higher triglyceride concentrations in very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein and LDL-1 particles and cholesterol content in LDL-1 and -2 particles. HRT decreased LDL-cholesterol in both groups. In the normoglycemic patients a small increase in HbAlc was observed (6.5±0.7 vs. 7.4+1%, P=004). In all cases, HRT did not modify the proportion of LDL represented by denser LDLs.

Conclusions: HRT did not modify the LDL subclass distribution, even in the presence of moderate chronic hyperglycemia in women with type 2 diabetes.

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