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עמוד בית
Sun, 16.06.24

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February 2007
R. Somech, S. Reif, A. Golander,Z. Spirer

Background: Leptin, a pleiotropic hormone, has been suggested to be part of an acute phase response during an inflammatory stimulus. Its correlation with other acute phase reactants during minor infection in children has not been investigated.

Objectives: To study the correlation between serum leptin levels to those of C-reactive protein, a well-documented acute-phase reactant, in a series of pediatric patients with acute minor infections.

Methods: Leptin and CRP[1] levels were measured in 62 blood samples of pediatric patients presenting with mild febrile illness who were admitted to Dana Children’s Hospital in Israel. All children were finally diagnosed as having minor infection based on the negative blood/urine cultures and favorable outcome.

Results: Serum leptin level was positively correlated with CRP (r2 = 0.5), total white blood cells (r2 = 0.33) and absolute neutrophil count (r2 = 0.31). The regression coefficient was the highest between leptin and CRP.

Conclusions: Circulating leptin concentrations are positively correlated with CRP levels during acute minor infection in children visiting the emergency room for febrile illnesses. Our observation suggests that leptin is indeed a part of acute-phase proteins. The wide scattering showed that it is not a better marker in minor infections than CRP, but it may contribute to weight loss and anorexia seen in the minority of patients during mild infections.






[1] CRP = C-reactive protein


October 2006
N. Hazanov, M. Attali, M. Somin, N. Beilinson, S. Goland, M. Katz and S.D.H. Malnick
 Background: Despite the spleen having a very rich blood supply, there is a paucity of reports of splenic emboli.

Objectives: To investigate the incidence of splenic emboli treated in a single general internal medicine department over the last 3 years.

Methods: We examined the records of a 35 bed internal medicine department in a hospital in the center of Israel.

Results: Over a period of 3 years 13 patients admitted to one internal medicine department developed acute abdominal pain and areas of hypoperfusion in the spleen on contrast computed tomography imaging. The patients were treated with anticoagulants, their course was benign and there were no long-term sequelae.

Conclusions: Embolus to the spleen is not rare in an internal medicine department. Diagnosis can be easily made by contrast CT scanning and treatment with anticoagulants results in a good prognosis. 

September 2005
D. Golan, M. Zagetzki and S. Vinker
Background: Acute respiratory viral infections are minor self-limited diseases. Studies have shown that patients with ARVI[1] can be treated as effectively by non-physician practitioners as by physicians.

Objectives: To examine whether a military medic, using a structured questionnaire and an algorithm, can appropriately triage patients to receive over-the-counter medications and refer more complicated cases to a physician.

Methods: The study group comprised 190 consecutive soldiers who presented to a military primary care clinic with symptoms of ARVI. Using a questionnaire, a medic recorded the patient's history and measured oral temperature, pulse rate and blood pressure. All patients were referred to a doctor. Physicians were “blind” to the medic’s anamnesis and to the algorithm diagnosis. We compared the medic’s anamnesis and therapeutic decisions to those of the doctors.

Results: Patients were young (21.1 ± 3.7 years) and generally healthy (93% without background illness). They usually had a minor disease (64% without fever), which was mostly diagnosed as viral ARVI (83% of cases). Ninety-nine percent were also examined by a physician. According to the patients' data, the medics showed high overall agreement with the doctors (83–97.9%). The proposed algorithm could have saved 37% of referrals to physicians, with a sensitivity of 95.2%. Had the medics been allowed to examine the pharynx for an exudate, the sensitivity might have been 97.6%.

Conclusions: Medics, equipped with a questionnaire and algorithm but without special training and without performing a physical examination, can appropriately triage patients and thereby reduce the number of referrals to physicians.

________________

[1] ARVI = acute respiratory viral infection

January 2003
S. Goland, G. Loutaty, A. Arditi, E. Snir, I. Abend and A. Caspi

Background: Concomitant mitral valve regurgitation is often present in patients with aortic stenosis. The additional MV[1] replacement is associated with high operative risk. Previous studies have shown an amelioration of MV regurgitation after aortic valve replacement but most of the patient groups were heterogenous.

Objectives: To determine whether AV[2] replacement for aortic stenosis has any effect on MV regurgitation.

Methods: We reviewed two-dimensional echocardiography and color flow Doppler assessment of both aortic stenosis and MV regurgitation severity in 30 patients. Patients with previous MV surgery, organic MV disease, occlusive carotid artery disease, ejection fraction < 50%, and coexisting significant AV regurgitation were excluded. Preoperatively, MV regurgitation was mild in 23 patients (77%) and moderate in 7 (23%); in no patient was the condition severe. All patients had severe atrial stenosis (peak average aortic gradient was 86  ± 22 mmHg in the mild MV regurgitation group, and 83 ± 26 mmHg in the moderate group). The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of MV regurgitation (associated mild, and moderate). Group 2, with moderate MV regurgitation, was the most problematic in terms of decision making for concomitant MV surgery. Therefore, additional assessment of several parameters was required.

Results: There was a significant decrease in MV regurgitation area (7.6 ± 1.9 vs. 3.0 ± 1.2 cm2, P £ 0.012) and percent (28 ± 5% vs. 12 ± 6%, P £ 0.001) between pre- and postoperative evaluation. Thus, the severity of the condition in all patients with moderate MV regurgitation decreased after AV replacement; in the mild group it remained unchanged in 53% or improved in 47%. There was no association between the preoperative gradient on the aortic valve and the degree of MV regurgitation.

Conclusions: In our population of patients with severe atrial stenosis there were no patients with coexisting severe MV regurgitation. The decision to repair or replace a severely leaking mitral valve is an easy one, as in mild MV regurgitation. The clinical problem often presents in patients with severe aortic stenosis and moderate MV regurgitation. We believe that additional MV surgery is not necessary, at least in patients with preserved left ventricular function and without organic MV disease.






[1] MV = mitral valve



[2] AV = aortic valve


August 2002
Bella Bielorai, MD, Hana Golan, MD, Gideon Rechavi, MD, PhD and Amos Toren, MD
June 2002
Eliezer Golan, MD, Bruria Tal, PhD, Yossef Dror, PhD, Ze’ev Korzets, MBBS, Yaffa Vered, PhD, Eliyahu Weiss, MSc and Jacques Bernheim, MD

Background: Multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in the obese individual.

Objective: To evaluate the role of a decrease in sympathetically mediated thermogenesis and the effect of the correlation between the plasma leptin and daily urinary nitric oxide levels on obesity-related hypertension.

Methods: We evaluated three groups: 25 obese hypertensive patients (age 45.7±1.37 years, body mass index 34.2±1.35 kg/m2, systolic/diastolic blood pressure 155±2.9/105±1.3, mean arterial pressure 122±1.50 mmHg); 21 obese normotensive patients (age 39.6±1.72, BMI[1] 31.3±0.76, SBP/DBP[2] 124±2.1/85.4±1.8, MAP[3] 98.2±1.80); and 17 lean normotensive subjects (age 38.1±2.16, BMI 22.1±0.28, SBP/DBP 117±1.7/76.8±1.5, MAP 90.1±1.50). We determined basal resting metabolic rates, plasma insulin (radioimmunoassay), norepinephrine (high performance liquid chromatography) in all subjects. Thereafter, 14 obese hypertensives underwent a weight reduction diet. At weeks 6 (n=14) and 14 (n=10) of the diet the above determinations were repeated. Plasma leptin (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and UNOx[4] (spectrophotometry) were assayed in 17 obese hypertensives and 17 obese normotensives, and in 19 obese hypertensives versus 11 obese normotensives, respectively.

Results: Obese hypertensive patients had significantly higher basal RMR[5] and plasma NE[6] levels. Insulin levels were lower in the lean group, with no difference between the hypertensive and normotensive obese groups. At weeks 6 and 14, BMI was significantly lower, as were insulin and NE levels. RMR decreased to values of normotensive subjects. MAP normalized but remained significantly higher than that of obese normotensives. Leptin blood levels and the leptin/UNOx ratio were significantly higher in the obese hypertensive compared to the obese normotensive patients. Both these parameters were strongly correlated to BMI, MAP5, RMR, and plasma NE and insulin .Obese hypertensive patients excreted less urinary NO metabolites. A strong correlation was found between MAP and the leptin/UNOx ratio.  

Conclusions: A reduction of sympathetically mediated thermogenesis, as reflected by RMR, results in normalization of obesity-related hypertension. In contrast, insulin does not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with obesity. Increased leptin levels in conjunction with decreased NO production in the presence of enhanced sympathetic activity may contribute to blood pressure elevation in the obese.

_____________________

[1] BMI = body mass index

[2] SBP/DBP = systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure

[3] MAP = mean arterial pressure

[4] UNOx = urinary nitric oxide

[5] RMR – resting metabolic rate

[6] NE = norepinephrine

October 2001
Jihad Bishara, MD, Avivit Golan-Cohen, MD, Eyal Robenshtok, MD, Leonard Leibovici, MD and Silvio Pitlik, MD

Background: Erysipelas is a skin infection generally caused by group A streptococci. Although penicillin is the drug of choice, some physicians tend to treat erysipelas with antibiotics other than penicillin.

Objectives: To define the pattern of antibiotic use, factors affecting antibiotic selection, and outcome of patients treated with penicillin versus those treated with other antimicrobial agents.

Methods: A retrospective review of charts of adult patients with discharge diagnosis of erysipelas was conducted for the years 1993-1996.

Results: The study group comprised 365 patients (median age 67 years). In 76% of the cases infection involved the leg/s. Predisposing condition/s were present in 82% of cases. Microorganisms were isolated from blood cultures in only 6 of 176 cases (3%), and Streptococcus spp. was recovered in four of these six patients. Cultures from skin specimens were positive in 3 of 23 cases. Penicillin alone was given to 164 patients (45%). Other antibiotics were more commonly used in the second half of the study period (P < 0.0001) in patients with underlying conditions (P = 0.06) and in those hospitalized in the dermatology ward (P< 0.0001). Hospitalization was significantly shorter in the penicillin group (P= 0.004). There were no in-hospital deaths.

Conclusions: We found no advantage in using antibiotics other than penicillin for treating erysipelas. The low yield of skin and blood cultures and their marginal impact on manage­ment, as well as the excellent outcome suggest that this infection can probably be treated empirically on an outpatient basis.
 

January 2001
Aharon Kessel, MD, Elias Toubi, MD, Theo Dov Golan, MD, Aurora Toubi, MD, Jorge G. Mogilner, MD and Michael Jaffe, MB ChB, CPD, CH
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