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February 2021
Marwan Hanna Pharm D and Ram Mazkereth MD

Extremely preterm infants are at high risk for mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment from invasive Candida infections. Prophylactic antifungal therapy has been shown to reduce both colonization and invasive candidemia in high-risk preterm infants. Prophylactic treatment should be started in the first 48 to 72 hours after birth to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (weighing ≤ 1000 grams at birth) or below 27 weeks gestation age with risk factors, or in any NICU with moderate (5–10%) or high (≥ 10%) rates of invasive candidiasis. Studies demonstrated the benefits of fluconazole prophylaxis regarding its safety of the short-term and long-term without the development of fungal resistance. Empiric antifungal therapy may lower mortality and improve outcomes

November 2018
Nir Hod MD MHA, Reut Anconina MD, Daniel Levin MD, Ekaterina Tiktinsky MD, Dina Ezroh Kazap MD, Itai Levi MD, Maria Zektser MD, Vered Stavi MD, Gilbert Sebbag MD and Sophie Lantsberg MD
May 2007
E. Segal, M. J. Menhusen and S. Simmons

Background: Invasive fungal infections by Mucorales or Aspergillus spp. are lethal infections in immune compromised patients. For these infections a multimodal approach is required. One potential tool for treating these infections is hyperbaric oxygen.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical course and utility of hyperbaric oxygen in patients with invasive fungal infections by Mucorales or Aspergillus spp.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 14 patients treated with HBO[1] as part of their multimodal therapy over a 12 year period.

Results: Most patients had significant immune suppression due to either drug treatment or their underlying disorder. Thirteen of the 14 underwent surgery as part of the treatment and all were receiving antifungal therapy while treated with the hyperbaric oxygen. The number of HBO sessions ranged between 1 and 44. Seven of the patients survived the infection. No patient developed complications due to HBO therapy.

Conclusions: HBO is a potentially significant adjunct in the treatment of invasive fungal infections. Evidence on its usefulness as a standard of care in these infections is still lacking. Since it will be difficult to generate conclusive data regarding the importance of HBO in these infections, the value of HBO in these patients should be considered on an individual basis.






[1]HBO = hyperbaric oxygen


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