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עמוד בית
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September 2019
Atzmon Tsur MD, Nael Shakeer MD and Ronit Geron MD

Background: The potential for full rehabilitation following amputation among end-stage renal disease patients is poor.

Objectives: To evaluate the functional outcomes and survival among amputees treated with hemodialysis at the end of the rehabilitation procedure.

Methods: We recruited 46 patients after lower limb amputation. Of these individuals, 19 (41.3%) were treated with dialysis and 27 (58.7%) were non-dialysis-dependent patients (NDDP). Both groups were divided into three sub-groups according to their independence with regard to activities of daily living (ADL) and their ability to walk with prostheses.

Results: The survival of lower limb amputees treated with dialysis was shorter compared to NDDP. Survival after amputation among the NDDP who were fully or partially independent in ADL and with regard to mobility, was longer compared to the non-mobile amputees as with the patients treated with dialysis.

Conclusions: Survival was significantly longer in lower limb amputees NDDP and shorter in patients who did not achieve a certain level of functioning.

September 2018
Dror Lakstein MD, Ornit Cohen BEng Msc, Efrat Daglan MD, Yaron Haimovich MD and Zachary Tan MD FRCSC

Background: Mortality and decrease in function after hip fracture are significantly related to patient factors including age, gender, co-morbidities, and mental status. Several studies demonstrated ethnic disparities in incidence, mortality, and functional outcome after hip fractures in the United States.

Objectives: To assess the relationship between ethnicity and hip fracture incidence and outcomes of mortality, functional change, and perioperative complications in the Israeli population.

Methods: We reviewed our institutional hip fracture registry for all patients from 2014–2015. Patients with incomplete data, < 60 years of age, or pathologic and periprosthetic fractures were excluded. Our study comprised 693 patients. Ethnicity was based on country of birth. Specifically, for those born in Israel, the nationality of either Jewish or Arab was further dichotomized. Perioperative complications, mortality, and mobility status at 1 year follow-up were recorded. The ethnicities of 27,130 patients admitted to the medicine and surgical wards during the same time interval served as a control group for the hip fracture cohort.

Results: Immigrants from Europe and America had the highest incidence of hip fractures. Fracture types varied in incidence in groups with 70% of extracapsular hip fractures occurring in Arabs and immigrants from Eastern countries, compared to 60% in immigrants from Western countries and the former Soviet Union. Mortality, perioperative complications, and mobility at 1 year were similar in all ethnic groups.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated significant differences in incidence and fracture characteristic among ethnicities, but no difference in patient outcome. These findings differed from the available North American studies.


January 2018
Efraim Aizen MD, Hila Nixon MD and Inna Shugaev MD

Background: There is little evidence about awareness and functional outcome of hip fracture-related falls among patients with a history of recurrent falling.

Objectives: To measure the awareness of recurrent falling in patients and to compare their functional outcomes with those who suffered hip fracture after a sporadic isolated fall.

Methods: A prospective comparative study of patients after a hip fracture-related fall was conducted. Awareness of falls was measured and functional outcome was assessed by total and motor Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score changes and efficiency and scores at admission and on discharge.

Results: Of 97 eligible participants, 49 (50.5%) were recurrent fallers. Of these recurrent falls, 19 (38.8%) were not reported, 16 (32.7%) were reported but no action was taken, and 7 (14.3%) were reported and a partial assessment performed. A full assessment was performed in only 7 cases (14.3%). FIM scores on admission and discharge were significantly higher in once-fallers. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that being a once-faller was independently associated with higher total FIM at admission (β coefficient = 0.290, P = 0.004), higher motor FIM at admission (β coefficient = 0.295, P = 0.003), higher total FIM at discharge (β Coefficient = 0.264, P = 0.009), and higher motor FIM at discharge (β coefficient = 0.230, P = 0.023).

Conclusions: Awareness of the syndrome of recurrent falling is extremely low. Recurrent falls before a hip fracture-related fall is associated with substantial loss of functional independence. Being a recurrent faller adversely affects rehabilitation outcome of hip fracture patients.

April 2017
Eliyahu H. Mizrahi MD MHA, Emilia Lubart MD, Anthony Heymann PhD and Arthur Leibovitz MD

Background: Holocaust survivors report a much higher prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture in the hip joint compared to those who were not Holocaust survivors.

Objective: To evaluate whether being a Holocaust survivor could affect the functional outcome of hip fracture in patients 64 years of age and older undergoing rehabilitation.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study compromising 140 consecutive hip fracture patients was conducted in a geriatric and rehabilitation department of a university-affiliated hospital. Being a Holocaust survivor was based on registry data. Functional outcome was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM)TM at admission and discharge from the rehabilitation ward. Data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square test, and linear regression analysis. 

Results: Total and motor FIM scores at admission (P = 0.004 and P = 0.006, respectively) and total and motor FIM gain scores at discharge (P = 0.008 and P = 0.004 respectively) were significantly higher in non-Holocaust survivors compared with Holocaust survivors. A linear regression analysis showed that being a Holocaust survivor was predictive of lower total FIM scores at discharge (β = -0.17, P = 0.004).

Conclusion: Hip fracture in Holocaust survivors showed lower total, motor FIM and gain scores at discharge compared to non-Holocaust survivor patients. These results suggest that being a Holocaust survivor could adversely affect the rehabilitation outcome following fracture of the hip and internal fixation. 


August 2015
Lutfi Jaber MD, Dafna Kirsh MD, Gary Diamond MD FAAP and Avinoam Shuper MD

Background: Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic health problem with significant risk for long-term morbidity in adulthood.

Objectives: We examined long-term outcomes of ADHD in a population-based sample of childhood ADHD cases prospectively assessed as adults.

Methods: Long-term outcomes for 70 adults who were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood were examined and compared with data on the general population.

Results: Most subjects admitted to persistence of ADHD-related symptoms in adulthood, despite discontinuation of regular medical treatment and follow-up. Areas most severely affected by past and ongoing symptoms included driving performance and incidence of motor vehicle accidents, and rates of marriage stability over time. Relatively unaffected were occupational and academic achievements and military service. 

Conclusions: There is a need for outreach and better services for adults who were previously diagnosed with ADHD. 


May 2011
E. Hayim Mizrahi, A. Waitzman, M. Arad and A. Adunsky

Background: Total cholesterol is significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke and high cholesterol levels may show better functional outcome after rehabilitation.

Objectives: To study the possible interrelations between hypercholesterolemia and functional outcome in elderly survivors of ischemic stroke.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review study of consecutive patients (age ≥ 60 years) with acute stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation ward in a university-affiliated hospital. The presence or absence of hypercholesterolemia was based on registry data positive for hypercholesterolemia, defined as total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl (5.17 mmol/L). Functional outcome of patients with hypercholesterolemia (Hchol) and without (NHchol) was assessed by the Functional Independence Measurement scale (FIMTM) at admission and discharge. Data were analyzed by t-test and chi-square test, as well as linear regression analysis.

Results: The complete data for 551 patients (age range 60–96 years)w ere available for final analysis; 26.7% were diagnosed as having hypercholesterolemia. Admission total FIM[1] scores were significantly higher in patients with Hchol[2] (72.1 ± 24.8) compared with NHchol[3] patients (62.2 ± 24.7) (P < 0.001). A similar difference was found at discharge (Hchol 90.8 ± 27.9 vs. NHchol 79.7 ± 29.2, P < 0.001). However, total FIM change upon discharge was similar in both groups (18.7 ± 13.7 vs. 17.6 ± 13.7, P = 0.4). Regression analyses showed that high Mini Mental State Examination scores (β = 0.13, P = 0.01) and younger age (β = -0.12, P = 0.02) were associated with higher total FIM change scores upon discharge. Total cholesterol was not associated with better total FIM change on discharge (β = -0.012, P = 0.82).

Conclusions: Elderly survivors of stroke with Hchol who were admitted for rehabilitation showed higher admission and discharge FIM scores but similar functional FIM gains as compared to NHchol patients. High cholesterol levels may be useful in identifying older individuals with a better rehabilitation potential.

[1] FIM = Functional Independence Measurement

[2] Hcol = hypercholesterolemia

[3] NHchol = non-hypercholesterolemia

November 2002
Itzchak Beiran, MD, Tamar Talmon, MD and Benjamin Miller, MD

Background: The prevalence of traumatic hyphema as well as the distribution of its severity varies between different patient populations. Treatment recommendations in the literature differ significantly among various published reports. This lack of a uniformly accepted treatment probably reflects the different characteristics of this pathology among the populations investigated and calls for a population-adjusted treatment recommendation.

Objectives: To report the characteristics and functional outcome of patients with traumatic hyphema and to discuss possible recommendations regarding the use of ε‑aminocaproic acid.

Methods: A prospective, non-randomized study was conducted among 154 consecutive patients with traumatic hyphema, including data collection of ophthalmic status at various time points, the presence or absence of secondary hemorrhage, and final visual acuity.

Results: Of the 154 eyes studied over 3½ years, nearly 90% had hyphema of grade 1 or less, 3 (3.25%) experienced rebleeding, and 2 (1.3%) – neither of which rebled – needed surgical intervention. None of the four patients who experienced final visual acuity of 6/40 or less suffered rebleeding.

Conclusion: The use of ε‑aminocaproic acid in the studied population was unjustified and routine use of e-aminocaproic acid in our patient population is probably not indicated. A treatment policy regarding e-aminocaproic acid use should be adjusted to the population being treated.

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