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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.04.24

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September 2002
Yaacov Ori, MD, Haim Neuman, MD, Avry Chagnac, MD, Annette Siegal, MD, Ana Tobar, MD, Maxim Itkin, MD, Uzi Gafter, MD, PhD and Asher Korzets, MB, BS

Background: The use of an automated biopsy system for renal biopsy has recently gained popularity, but its safety in single functioning kidneys is unclear.

Objective: To report our experience with the automated system for closed renal biopsy during a 5 year period.

Methods: Eighty-five patients underwent percutaneous native renal biopsy with the automated biopsy gun (16G needle) under real-time ultrasound. They were chronologically divided into two groups: 41 patients (group A), using an older ultrasound machine; and 44 patients (group B), using a newer ultrasound machine. Nine patients biopsied with a manual 14G Tru-cut needle served as the control (group C).

Results: The number of "attempted" passes at the kidney was 4.0 ± 0.1 in group B, 4.7 ± 0.3 in group A (P < 0.05 vs. group B), and 5.8 ± 0.5 in group C (P < 0.01 vs. group B). The number of successful passes did not differ (3.3 ± 0.1, 3.3 ± 0.1, 3.1 ± 0.2). The ratio of "attempted/successful" was 1.28 ± 0.07 in group B, 1.95 ± 0.38 in A, and 1.90 ± 0.21 in C (P < 0.01 vs. B). The number of glomeruli obtained was similar in the three groups. Adequate tissue was obtained in 95%, 98%, and 100%, respectively. Hemoglobin decreased by 4.3 ± 1.1% in group B, 6.9 ± 1.3% in group A, and 11.3 ± 1.8% in group C (P < 0.05 vs. B). Perinephric/subcapsular hematoma occurred in 5 patients (11.4%) in group A (2 taking aspirin), in 2 patients (4.9%) in group B, and in none in group C. The necessity for blood transfusion post-biopsy was similar in all groups. Four of five patients with single functioning kidneys (one in group A and four in group B) had uneventful biopsies, and adequate tissue was obtained in three.

Conclusions: The use of the automated biopsy gun is effective, safe and has a low rate of major complications. It may be used safely in single functioning kidneys.

November 2001
Anna Ghirardello, PhD, Andrea Doria, MD, Sandra Zampieri SciBiol, Pier Franca Gambari, MD and Silvano Todesco, MD
August 2001
March 2001
Marina Leitman, MD, Eli Peleg, MD, Simcha Rosenblat, MD, Eddy Sucher, MD, Ruthie Wolf, Stanislav Sedanko, Ricardo Krakover, MD and Zvi Vered, MD
February 2001
Max J. Schmulson, MD

Knowledge on the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome has evolved, beginning with disturbances in motility to visceral hypersensitivity, and ultimately to alterations in brain-gut bi­directional communication, where neurotransmitters such as serotonin play a key role. Recently, a multicomponent disease model that integrates all these alterations was proposed. This model is divided into physiological, cognitive, emotional and behavioral components that explain the gastrointestinal as well as the constitutional symptoms. In recent years there has been an explosion of research together with new developments in pharmacological treatments for lBS that support each compo­nent of this model. This review presents recent data in favor of these alterations in IBS.

August 2000
Robert Goldstein PhD, Dan Braverman MD and Halina Stankiewicz MSc

Background: Carbohydrate malabsorption of lactose, fructose and sorbitol has already been described in normal volunteers and in patients with functional bowel complaints including irritable bowel syndrome. Elimination of the offending sugar(s) should result in clinical improvement.

Objective: To examine the importance of carbohydrate malabsorption in outpatients previously diagnosed as having functional bowel disorders, and to estimate the degree of clinical improvement following dietary restriction of the malabsorbed sugar(s).

Methods: A cohort of 239 patients defined as functional bowel complaints was divided into a group of 94 patients who met the Rome criteria for irritable bowel syndrome and a second group of 145 patients who did not fulfill these criteria and were defined as functional complaints. Lactose (18 g), fructose (25 g) and a mixture of fructose (25 g) plus sorbitol (5 g) solutions were administered at weekly intervals. End-expiratory hydrogen and methane breath samples were collected at 30 minute intervals for 4 hours. Incomplete absorption was defined as an increment in breath hydrogen of at least 20 ppm, or its equivalent in methane of at least 5 ppm. All patients received a diet without the offending sugar(s) for one month.

Results: Only 7% of patients with IBS and 8% of patients with FC absorbed all three sugars normally. The frequency of isolated lactose malabsorption was 16% and 12% respectively. The association of lactose and fructose-sorbitol malabsorption occurred in 61% of both patient groups. The frequency of sugar malabsorption among patients in both groups was 78% for lactose malabsorption (IBS 82%, FC 75%), 44% for fructose malabsorption and 73% for fructose-sorbitol malabsorption (IBS 70%, FC 75%). A marked improvement occurred in 56% of IBS and 60% of FC patients following dietary restriction. The number of symptoms decreased significantly in both groups (P<0.01) and correlated with the improvement index (IBS P<0.05, FC P<0.025).

Conclusions: Combined sugar malabsorption patterns are common in functional bowel disorders and may contribute to symptomatology in most patients. Dietary restriction of the offending sugar(s) should be implemented before the institution of drug therapy.

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IBS = irritable bowel syndrome

FC = functional complaints

June 2000
Osnat Madhala–Givon MD, Edith Hochhauser PhD, Avi Weinbroum MD, Yacov Barak MD, Tatyana Krasnov MSc, Shlomo Lelcuk MD, Daniella Harell PhD and Bernardo Vidne MD

Background: The beneficial effect of aprotinin, a naturally occurring protease inhibitor, on preservation of organs such as the liver, kidney and lung has been documented.

Objective: To explore the effects of hepatic ischemia and reperfusion on both liver and myocardial function, using a dual isolated perfused organ model with and without aprotinin.

Methods: Isolated rat livers were stabilized for 30 minutes with oxygenated modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37°C. Livers were then perfused continuously with KH or KH + aprotinin 106 KIU/L for an additional 135 min. Livers of two other groups were made globally ischemic for 120 min, then perfused for 15 min with KH or with KH + aprotinin. Isolated hearts (Langendorff preparation) were stabilized for 30 min and then reperfused with KH or KH + aprotinin exiting the liver for 15 min.  The liver’s circuit was disconnected, and hearts were re-circulated with the accumulated liver + heart effluent for an additional 50 min.

Results: In the ischemia and ischemia + aprotinin groups, portal vein pressure (1 and 15 min reperfusion) was 331±99% and 339±61% vs. 308±81% and 193±35% of baseline, respectively (P<0.03 vs. ischemia). There were no other differences in the enzyme leakage  between aprotinin-treated or untreated ischemic livers. Left ventricular pressure was stable in the controls.

However, LV pressure in groups perfused with ischemic liver effluent declined within 65 min reperfusion, whether aprotinin treated or not (84±8% and 73±5% of baseline, respectively, P<0.004 only for ischemia vs. control)

Conclusion: When aprotinin was used, LV pressure was inclined to be higher while liver portal vein pressure was lower, thus providing protection against liver and heart reperfusion injury. 

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* These authors contributed equally to the article

KH = Krebs-Henseleit

LV = left ventricular

April 2000
Eytan Mor MD, Rachel Michowiz RN MA, Tamar Ashkenazi RN MSc Ethi Shabtai PhD, Richard Nakache MD, Ahmed Eid MD, Aaron Hoffman MD, Solly Mizrahi MD, Moshe Shabtai MD and Zaki Shapira MD1 for the Israel Transplant Center

Background: Over a 12 month period, the Israel Transplant Center doubled the number of donors by assigning a nurse coordinator to each of 22 hospitals around the country and by using kidneys from elderly donors.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of our "marginal donors" policy on the results immediately following transplantation.

Methods: Between October 1997 and September 1998, 140 cadaveric kidney transplantations from 72 donors were performed in Israel. We defined two groups of recipients: patients with immediate graft function and patients with either delayed graft function requiring >1 week of dialysis post-transplant or with primary graft non-function. We compared the following parameters between groups: donor and recipient age and gender, cause of donor’s death, length of stay in the intensive care unit, vasopressor dosage and creatinine levels before harvesting, cold ischemic time, and the number of recipient grafts.

Results: There were 102 recipients (72.8%) with immediate graft function and 38 with either PNF (n=13, 9.3%) or DGF (n=25, 17.9%). On regression analysis, donor age >50 year and retransplantation were significant risk factors for PNF or DGF (odds ratio 4.4 and 2.8, respectively). Of the 56 kidneys from donors >50 years old, 21 (37.5%) developed either PNF (n=9) or DGF (n=12).

Conclusions: We conclude that kidneys from donors over age 50 are at increased risk for graft non-function or delayed function. Better assessment of functional capacity of kidneys from “aged” donors may help to choose appropriate donors from that pool.

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PNF = primary graft non-function

DGF = delayed graft function

February 2000
Einat Birk MD, Alon Stamler MD, Jacob Katz MD, Michael Berant, Ovadia Dagan MD, Abraham Matitiau, Eldad Erez MD, Leonard C. Blieden and Bernardo A. Vidne

Background: Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital malformation that presents a diagnostic challenge to the pediatrician and pediatric cardiologist. Although surgical repair is always indicated, the optimal technique has yet to be determined.      

Objectives: To review our experience with the diagnosis of children with ALCAPA and to assess short to midterm surgical results.

Methods: Between 1992 and 1998, 13 infants and children (2 months to 15 years) were treated for ALCAPA at our medical center. Eight were diagnosed during the first year of life; all were symptomatic and had severe dysfunction of the left ventricle. The five patients diagnosed at an older age had normal myocardial function. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography alone in seven patients; six required catheterization (one infant and all older patients). Surgery was performed in 12 patients to establish dual coronary artery system: 7 underwent the Takeuchi procedure and 5 had re-implantation of the anomalous left coronary artery.

Results: One infant died shortly after diagnosis before surgical repair was attempted, and one died postoperatively. Four patients required additional surgery: three for late complications of the Takeuchi procedure and one valve replacement for mitral insufficiency. Recent evaluation revealed good global left ventricle function in all patients except for one, who is still within the recovery phase and shows gradual improvement. However, most patients who presented with severe myocardial dysfunction upon diagnosis still display abnormal features such as echo-dense papillary muscles or evidence of small akinetic segments. In this group, early repair was associated with faster myocardial recovery.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of ALCAPA remains a clinical challenge to the pediatrician and cardiologist. Diagnosis can be established echocardiographically, and early diagnosis and treatment may lead to faster myocardial recovery. The preferred surgical method appears to be re-implantation of the ALCA. The chance for good recovery of global ventricular function is high even in the sickest patients, nonetheless abnormal myocardial features can be identified even years after surgery.

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ALCAPA= anomolous origin of the left coronary artery from pulmonary artery.

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