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עמוד בית
Tue, 16.07.24

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November 2023
Amit Frenkel MD MHA, Ran Abuhasira MD PhD, Lior Fisher Med.Sc, Yoav Bichovsky MD, Alexander Zlotnik MD PhD, Victor Novack MD PhD, Moti Klein MD MPH

Background: Younger patient age and relatively good prognosis have been described as factors that may increase caregiver motivation in treating patients with septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU).

Objectives: To examine whether clinical teams tended to achieve unnecessarily higher map arterial pressure (MAP) values in younger patients.

Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with septic shock who were treated with noradrenaline and hospitalized in a general ICU between 2006 and 2018. The patients were classified into four age groups: 18-45 (n=129), 46-60 (n=96), 61-75 (n=157), and older than 75 years (n=173). Adjusted linear mixed models and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) curves were used to assess associations and potential non-linear relationships, respectively, of age group with MAP and noradrenaline dosage.

Results: The cohort included 555 patients. An inverse relation was observed between average MAP value and age. Among patients aged 18–45 years, the average MAP was 4.7 mmHg higher (95% confidence interval 3.4–5.9) than among patients aged > 75 years (P-value <0.001) after adjustment for sex, death in the intensive care unit, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores.

Conclusions: Among patients with septic shock, the titration of noradrenaline by staff led to a higher average MAP for younger patients. Although the MAP target is equal for all age groups, staff may administer noradrenaline treatment according to a higher target of MAP due to attitudes toward patients of different ages, despite any evidence that such practice is beneficial.

July 2023
Yonatan Shneor Patt MD, Niv Ben-Shabat MD, Lior Fisher MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Abdulla Watad MD, Kassem Sharif MD

Background: Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are inflammatory mediated myopathies characterized by progressive symmetric proximal muscle weakness and associated with extra-muscular involvement. Central nervous system complications are rarely reported with these diseases.

Objectives: To investigate the association between dementia and PM/DM.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a database from Clalit Health Care, the largest health maintenance organization in Israel. Patients with a first recorded diagnosis of PM/DM were included and were compared with age- and sex-matched controls by a ratio of 1:5. The prevalence of dementia among PM/DM patients compared to controls was assessed using a univariate and a multivariable model. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association of different factors with dementia within the PM/DM cohort.

Results: The study included 2085 PM/DM cases (17.0%) and 10,193 age- and sex-matched controls (83.0%). During the follow-up time, 36 PM/DM patients were diagnosed with dementia compared to 160 controls, with a univariate hazard ratio (HR) of 1.10 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.77–1.58). Within the PM/DM cohort, significant predictors for the development of dementia included increased age at diagnosis (5 years increment; OR 1.86, 95%CI 1.57–2.21, P < 0.001) and treatment with glucocorticoids (OR 5.40, 95%CI 1.67–17.67, P = 0.005).

Conclusions: In our cohort, inflammatory myopathies were not associated with dementia. Age and treatment with glucocorticoids were associated with dementia. If dementia is diagnosed in patients with inflammatory myopathies, other systemic causes should be investigated.

November 2022
Lior Fisher MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Orly Goitein MD

Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) refers to acute, subacute, or chronic thrombosis and occlusion of the mesenteric veins. MVT is an uncommon disorder, with an estimated incidence of is 2.7 per 100,000 patient-years. It accounts for 1 in 5000 to 15,000 inpatient admissions [1,2].

August 2021
Omer Or MD, Tamar Fisher Negev PharmD, Vered Hadad MD, Ran Shabtai MD, Alona Katzir MD, Yoram Weil MD, and Meir Liebergall MD

Background: Osteoporosis is a common medical condition in older ages. A devastating result of osteoporosis may be a hip fracture with up to 30% mortality rate in one year. The compliance rate of osteoporotic medication following a hip fracture is 20% in the western world.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of the fracture liaison service (FLS) model in the orthopedic department on patient compliance following hip fracture

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with hip fracture who were involved with FLS. We collected data regarding kidney function, calcium levels, parathyroid hormone levels, and vitamin D levels at admission. We educated the patient and family, started vitamin D and calcium supplementation and recommended osteoporotic medical treatment. We phoned the patient 6–12 weeks following the fracture to ensure treatment initiation.

Results: From June 2018 to June 2019 we identified 166 patients with hip fracture who completed at least one year of follow-up. Over 75% of the patients had low vitamin D levels and 22% had low calcium levels at admission. Nine patients (5%) died at median of 109 days. Following our intervention, 161 patients (96%) were discharged with a specific osteoporotic treatment recommendation; 121 (73%) received medication for osteoporosis on average of < 3 months after surgery. We recommended on injectable medications; however, 51 (42%) were treated with oral biphsophonate.

Conclusions: FLS improved the compliance rate of osteoporotic medical treatment and should be a clinical routine in every medical center

January 2021
Eden Moore, Barbara G. Silverman MD MPH, Yehudit Fishler, Etty Ben-Adiva MPH, Olga Davidov MBA, Rita Dichtiar MPH, Hila Edri, Miriam Zatlawi MPH, and Lital Keinan-Boker MD PhD MPH

Background: The Israel National Cancer Registry (INCR) was established in 1960. Reporting has been mandatory since 1982. All neoplasms of uncertain/unknown behavior, in situ and invasive malignancies (excluding basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin), and benign neoplasms of the brain and central nervous system (CNS) are reportable.

Objectives: To assess completeness and timeliness of the INCR for cases diagnosed or treated in 2005.

Methods: Abstractors identified cases of in situ and invasive malignancies and tumors of benign and uncertain behavior of the brain and CNS diagnosed or treated in 2005 in the files of medical records departments, pathology and cytology laboratories, and oncology and hematology institutes in 39 Israeli medical facilities. Cases were linked to the INCR database by national identity number. Duplicate cases, and those found to be non-reportable were excluded from analysis. Completeness was calculated as the percent of reportable cases identified by the survey that were present in the registry. Timeliness was calculated as the percent of reportable cases diagnosed in 2005, which were incorporated into the registry prior to 31 December 2007.

Results: The INCR’s completeness is estimated at 93.7% for all reportable diseases, 96.8% for invasive solid tumors, and 88.0% for hematopoietic tumors. Incident cases for the calendar year 2005 were less likely to be present in the registry database than those diagnosed prior to 2005.

Conclusions: Completeness and timeliness of the INCR are high and meet international guidelines. Fully automated reporting will likely improve the quality and timeliness of INCR data.

January 2019
Emily Fisher MD MSc, Christine Loock MD, Ariana Melamed BA, Shulamit Blank MD and Gideon Koren MD

Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) may be under-recognized and under-diagnosed in Israel. Fewer than 10 FASD diagnoses were reported between 1998 and 2007; however, several hundred diagnoses have been made since. Furthermore, less than 10% of surveyed Israeli pediatricians reported adequate knowledge of FASD.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suspected FASD, to establish a database as a starting point for epidemiological studies, and to develop FASD awareness for health, social, and educational services.

Methods: A chart review was conducted at an educational facility for children and adolescents with behavioral and learning challenges. The following information was extracted: adoption status, history of alcohol/drug abuse in the biological mother, medical diagnoses, medication use, and information regarding impairment in 14 published neurobehavioral categories. Subjects were classified as: category 1 (highly likely FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence of maternal alcohol abuse was available; category 2 (possible FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence to support maternal substance abuse (type/time unspecified); and category 3 (unconfirmed likelihood of FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and no information regarding the biological family.

Results: Of 237 files analyzed, 38 subjects (16%) had suspected FASD: 10 subjects (4%) in category 1, 5 (2%) in category 2, and 23 (10%) in category 3. Twenty-seven subjects with suspected FASD (69%) had been adopted.

Conclusions: This study is the most comprehensive review of FASD among Israeli children and adolescents in a population with learning and behavior challenges.

May 2018
David Peleg MD, Yechiel Z. Burke MD, Ido Solt MD and Menachem Fisher MD

Cesarean section has undergone a transformation that has radically changed the prognosis of both the pregnant woman and her unborn child. The attributed mortality rate of Cesarean section during the 19th century was over 50% worldwide. Today, mortality from Cesarean delivery is rare. However, the technique of transversely incising the uterus in its lower uterine segment, although less than a century old, is passed on from instructor to apprentice, often without either of them being aware of its noble history. In this brief review, we discuss the reported history regarding this incision and the significant role played by John Munro Kerr.

December 2017
Miki Paker MD, Shani Fisher RN, Salim Mazzawi MD, Raul Colodner PhD and Dror Ashkenazi MD

Background: Direct aspiration from suspected pathological tissue and rapid parathyroid hormone analysis may offer a reliable, cost effective alternative to currently used “gold standard” tests.

Objectives: To validate the accuracy of intraoperative measurements of parathyroid hormone levels in parathyroid adenomas.

Methods: A prospective study included 22 patients diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy due to an adenoma or hyperplasia. Aspirations of tissues extracted from three adjacent areas (the pathological parathyroid, thyroid, and muscle tissues) were sent for rapid parathyroid hormone analysis. The assay values of these tissue aspirates were compared to the results of the pathology report based on frozen section analysis and the final pathology report.

Results: All assay results were significantly higher for parathyroid tissue 16,800 to 1,097,986 pmol/L (median 26,600), than for either thyroid 1.7 to 415 pmol/L (median 6.5), P < 0.001, or muscle tissue 1.1 to 1230 pmol/L, (median 11.3), P < 0.001. All tissues showing high parathyroid assay values were also verified by pathology examinations: 7 had adenomas and 15 had a differential diagnosis of adenoma or hyperplasia. The frozen section identified all but one (false negative). Rapid intraoperative parathyroid levels > 1500 predicted parathyroid tissue with a 99% level of confidence, while levels between 1000 and 1500 predicted it with 95% confidence. The intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay showed > 70% decrease in 15/21 cases.

Conclusions: Rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone analysis is a reliable and precise technique, equally accurate for frozen section analysis in predicting with high certainty intraoperative parathyroid tissue.

February 2017
June 2016
Tzippora Shalem MD, Akiva Fradkin MD, Marguerite Dunitz-Scheer MD, Tal Sadeh-Kon Dsc RD, Tali Goz-Gulik MD, Yael Fishler MD and Batia Weiss MD

Background: Children dependent on gastrostomy tube feeding and those with extremely selective eating comprise the most challenging groups of early childhood eating disorders. We established, for the first time in Israel, a 3 week intensive weaning and treatment program for these patients based on the "Graz model."

Objectives: To investigate the Graz model for tube weaning and for treating severe selective eating disorders in one center in Israel. 

Methods: Pre-program assessment of patients’ suitability to participate was performed 3 months prior to the study, and a treatment goal was set for each patient. The program included a multidisciplinary outpatient or inpatient 3 week treatment course. The major outcome measures were achievement of the target goal of complete or partial tube weaning for those with tube dependency, and expansion of the child's nutritional diversity for those with selective eating. 

Results: Thirty-four children, 28 with tube dependency and 6 with selective eating, participated in four programs conducted over 24 months. Their mean age was 4.3 ± 0.37 years. Of all patients, 29 (85%) achieved the target goal (24 who were tube-dependent and 5 selective eaters). One patient was excluded due to aspiration pneumonia. After 6 months follow-up, 24 of 26 available patients (92%) maintained their target or improved. 

Conclusions: This intensive 3 week program was highly effective in weaning children with gastrostomy tube dependency and ameliorating severe selective eating. Preliminary evaluation of the family is necessary for completion of the program and achieving the child’s personal goal, as are an experienced multidisciplinary team and the appropriate hospital setup, i.e., inpatient or outpatient. 

 

April 2016
Miriam Regev MD PhD and Elon Pras MD

Autoimmune diseases are classic examples of multifactorial disorders in which a large number of genes interact with environmental factors to form the final phenotype. Identification of the genes involved in these diseases is a daunting challenge. Initially the search involved the candidate approach where polymorphisms in suspected genes were tested for association in large cohorts of patients and controls. Today, the most widely used method is genome-wide association studies (GWAS), a method based on screening large panels of patients and controls with hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with microarray-based technology. Unique families in which autoimmune diseases are caused by single genes are another alternative. The identification of candidate genes is often followed by studies that provide biologic plausibility for the findings. The widely expanding list of genes involved in autoimmune conditions show that the same genes frequently underlie the pathogenesis of different autoimmune diseases. Despite all available resources, the main void of heritability in autoimmune conditions is yet to be discovered. Identification of these genes will help define new biological pathways and identify novel targets for the development of new therapeutic drugs.

November 2015
Menachem Fisher MD, Izhar ben Shlomo MD, Ido Solt MD and Yechiel Z. Burke MD

We present an overview of the current sexual behavior of adolescents in Israel, including the related social and moral issues, and compare it to that in Western countries. An important factor is the existence of liberal versus conservative views regarding the use of contraception and termination of pregnancy in these young subjects. We describe the current situation where in most cases the medical providers do not provide adequate contraceptive advice to adolescent girls, resulting ultimately in a high rate of unintended pregnancy. In our opinion, it is essential to make effective contraception more accessible to this vulnerable group.

October 2015
Nadav Sarid MD, Sigi Kay PhD, Avital Angel MD, Luba Trakhtenbrot PhD , Odelia Amit MD, Yair Herishanu MD and Chava Perry MD PhD
February 2013
Y. Shilo, S. Efrati, Z. Simon, A. Sella, E. Gez, E. Fenig, M. Wygoda, A. Lindner, G. Fishlev, K. Stav, A. Zisman, Y.I. Siegel and D. Leibovici

 Background: Hemorrhagic radiation cystitis (HRC) is a significant clinical problem that occurs after pelvic radiation therapy and is often refractory.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for HRC.

Methods: Daily 90 minute sessions of HBO at 2 ATM 100% oxygen were given to 32 HRC patients with American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) grades 3-4 hematuria.

Results: The median age was 72.5 (48–88 years). The median time interval between radiation therapy and HBO was 4 years (1–26 years). The patients received a median of 30 HBO sessions (3–53). Hematuria resolved in 27 patients (84%) and persisted in 5. Cystectomy was required in two, and ileal-conduit and bilateral percutaneous nephrostomies were performed in one and two patients, respectively. With a median follow-up of 12 months (5–74 months), the hematuria cleared completely in 16 patients (59%) and mild hematuria requiring no further treatment recurred in 10 others. Another patient with ASTRO grade 4 hematuria needed bladder irrigation and blood transfusions. Complications included eardrum perforation in four patients and transient vertigo and mild hemoptysis in one case each. None of them required HBO discontinuation.

Conclusions: HBO controlled bleeding in 84% of the patients. A durable freedom from significant hematuria was achieved in 96% of the patients. HBO seems to be an effective and safe modality in patients with HRC.

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