• IMA sites
  • IMAJ services
  • IMA journals
  • Follow us
  • Alternate Text Alternate Text
עמוד בית
Sat, 02.03.24

Search results


October 2019
Mahmud Mahamid MD, Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit MD, Hana Amara MD, Benjamin Koslowsky MD, Rami Ghantous RN and Rifaat Safadi MD

Background: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major classic presentations of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Studies have shown a wide variation in the incidence and prevalence attributed to different geographic and ethnic populations.

Objectives: To assess the clinical characteristics of IBD among Arabs in Israel and to compare them to characteristics of IBD among Ashkenazi Jews.

Methods: This retrospective, comparative study compared the clinical characteristics of IBD among 150 Arabs from the Holy Family Hospital and the Nazareth Hospital EMMS, both located in Nazareth, Israel, to those of 97 age- and sex-matched Ashkenazi Jewish patients from Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Results: The Arab cohort, which included 106 patients (70%) with Crohn's disease and 44 (29%) with ulcerative colitis, was compared to 97 Ashkenazi patients (81% with Crohn's disease and 17% with ulcerative colitis) (P < 0.05). Alcohol consumption was found in both groups, but Arabs smoked more (46% vs. 12%, respectively, P < 0.05). Obstructive phenotype was lower in Arabs (10% vs. 32%, P < 0.05). 5-aminosalicylic acid and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha were prescribed for the Arab and Ashkenazi groups (89% and 21%, respectively). The need for surgical intervention due to disease severity and/or complications was not significant (22% vs. 24%).

Conclusions: Despite similar reports of NOD2/CARD15 mutations, Crohn's disease is more common than ulcerative colitis within the Arab-Israeli population. Increased smoking rates may explain milder disease severities in Arabs, as reflected by lower obstructive pattern and frequent use of milder therapeutic modalities.

June 2013
A. Hilmi, Y. Pasternak, M. Friger, N. Loewenthal, A. Haim and E. Hershkovitz
 Background: The existent glycemic control of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients in daily practice might not reach the goals determined in guidelines. Ethnic diversity was also shown to influence glycemic control.

Objectives: To evaluate glycemic control, prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at presentation, diabetic complications rate, and associated autoimmune diseases in a pediatric T1DM patient population in the Negev area.

Methods: Clinical and demographic details of 168 T1DM patients were evaluated, including HbA1C levels, long-term complications, related autoimmune diseases, and insulin pump usage. The data were analyzed and the Jewish and Bedouin patient groups compared.

Results: Only 13.1% of the patients had reached the HbA1C levels recommended by the current guidelines at the first and second year follow-up visits, and 9.5% and 7.1% at the third and fourth year visits, respectively. A significant difference in HbA1c levels between Jewish and Bedouin patients was found (P = 0.045 at the first year follow-up, P ≤ 0.01 thereafter). Significant difference was found between the Jewish and the Bedouin groups regarding presentation with DKA, 33% and 56% of the patients respectively (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Existent glycemic control in daily practice is far from the guideline goals. Bedouin ethnicity was associated with less favorable diabetes control, emphasizing the need for better awareness of T1DM and its treatment options in this population. More resources should be directed to address T1DM in the general population, especially among the Bedouin.

 

November 2011
J. Menczer

The incidence of invasive uterine cervical cancer in Israeli Jewish women is persistently lower than in many other countries, although the frequency of premalignant lesions is similar to that in other populations. Most characteristics, except certain traditional habits, are similar to those in other populations. The incidence among women born in North Africa and their Israeli born descendants is significantly higher than in those born in other continents, possibly due to genetic factors. In view of the similarities to other populations the reason for the low incidence in Israel remains obscure, and whether it may be attributed to genetic reasons or to some traditional habits remains to be confirmed
 

December 2010
Y. Oren, Y. Shapira, N. Agmon-Levin, S. Kivity, Y. Zafrir, A. Altman, A. Lerner and Y. Shoenfeld

Background: Hypovitaminosis D has been shown to be extremely common in various regions around the world, mostly at high latitudes. Israel is characterized by certain features – cultural (e.g., ethnic isolates) and geographic (e.g., sunny climate) – that have been identified for their possible association with vitamin D status.

Objectives: To conduct an ecological study on a representative sample of the population of Israel, testing vitamin D status across age groups, genders, ethnic groups, and seasons.

Methods: We obtained serum samples from 195 healthy Israeli volunteers representing a broad demographic spectrum. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured with the commercial kit Liaison 25(OH)D Assay (DiaSorin, Italy).

Results: The mean vitamin D level for the entire cohort was surprisingly low (22.9 ± 10.1 ng/ml), with 149 subjects (78%) suffering from vitamin D insufficiency (< 30 ng/ml). Vitamin D status was better in infants than in older age groups. Differences by gender were significant only in the infant age group (i.e., vitamin D status was worse among females) and were not prominent across older ages. Israelis of Ashkenazi origin had higher vitamin D mean levels than those of Sephardic origin, who, in turn, had higher vitamin D levels than Arab subjects (31.4 ± 12, 24.1 ± 10, and 17.6 ± 9 ng/ml respectively). With regard to season, there were no differences between the samples collected in winter and the samples collected in summer.

Conclusions: The results suggest that hypovitaminosis D is common across all ages, genders and seasons in Israel, a country characterized by a sunny Mediterranean climate. Specific ethnic groups may be at especially high risk.

August 2007
Click on the icon on the upper right hand side for the article by Naomi Bar-Joseph, MSc, Gad Rennert, MD, Ada Tamir, PhD, Liora Ore, MD and Gad Bar-Joseph, MD. IMAJ 2007: 8: August: 603-606

Background: In the western world, trauma is the leading cause of disability and mortality in the 1–39 years age group. Road accidents constitute the most frequent cause of mortality among children older than 1 year and falls from a height are the most frequent cause of injuries requiring hospitalization.

Objectives: To analyze the epidemiology and characteristics of severe pediatric trauma due to falls from a height in northern Israel. This analysis should aid in planning an effective intervention plan.

Methods: This observational study included all patients aged 0–14 who died or were admitted to an intensive care unit in northern Israel following a steep fall. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively for 3 years and prospectively for 1 year.

Results: A total of 188 children were severely injured or died following such a fall, with an annual rate of 11.4 per 100,000 children. Over 85% of severe injuries due to falls occurred among non-Jewish children, with an incidence rate 6.36 times higher than among Jewish children (20.17 and 3.17 per 100,000 children, respectively). In the non-Jewish sector 93.7% of the falls occurred at or around the child’s home, mainly from staircases, balconies and roofs.

Conclusions: A very high incidence of severe trauma due to domestic falls from a height was found among non-Jewish children in northern Israel. Domestic falls represent an important epidemiological problem in the non-Jewish pediatric sector, and an effective prevention plan should include measures to modify parents’ attitudes towards safety issues and the creation of a safe domestic environment.
 

June 2007
H. Tandeter, I. Masandilov, I. Kemerly, A. Biderman

Background: Studies have found ethno-cultural disparities in health care delivery in different countries. Minority populations may receive lower standards of care.

Objectives: To test a hypothesis that Jewish Ethiopian women may be receiving less preventive recommendations than other women in Israel.

Methods: A telephone survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire designed specifically for this study in Hebrew, Russian and Amharic (Semitic language of Ethiopia). The study group included 51 post-menopausal women of Ethiopian origin, aged 50–75. The control group included 226 non-Ethiopians matched by age, some of whom were immigrants from the former Soviet Union. The questionnaire dealt with osteoporosis and breast cancer screening and prevention.

Results: All the parameters measured showed that the general population received more preventive treatment than did Jewish Ethiopian women, including manual breast examination, mammography, osteoporosis prevention, bone density scans, and recommendations for a calcium-rich diet, calcium supplementation, hormone replacement therapy, biphosphonates and raloxifen. On a logistic regression model the level of knowledge of the Hebrew language, age, ethnicity and not visiting the gynecologist were significantly related to not having received any preventive medicine recommendations.
Conclusions: Differences in cultural backgrounds and language between physicians and their patients may become barriers in the performance of screening and preventive medicine. Recognizing this potential for inequity and using methods to overcome these barriers may prevent it in the future

November 2003
J. Shachor, C. Ziv, S. Varsano, T. Erlich, E. Goldman, Y. Dror, I. Yahovy and R. Navon

Background: It has been argued that arginine replacement in locus16 (Arg16) of ß2 adrenergic receptor with glycin (Gly16) increases asthma severity, while glutamin replacement in locus 27 (Gln27) with glutamic acid (Glu27) decreases it. In addition, ethnic dependency of these polymorphisms has been described, but few studies investigated its relation to asthma severity in a non-anglosaxic population.

Objectives: To investigate non-anglosaxic ethnic influences on ß2AR[1] polymorphisms and its correlations to asthma severity.

Methods: Sixty-six Israeli Jewish and Arab asthmatics who had near-fatal asthma and/or severe nocturnal asthma and/or steroid-dependency were investigated for genetic polymorphisms of ß2AR and compared to matched controls. The Jewish patients included both Ashkenazi (of East European origin) and non-Ashkenazi (originating from the Middle East or North Africa). The results were compared with those of ethnically matched 113 non-asthmatic Israelis, and of non-asthmatic Anglo-Saxons described in the literature.

Results: We found no significant genetic differences between the asthmatics and their controls or between the various ethnic groups of our population. However, the prevalence of Glu27 was significantly lower in non-asthmatic Israelis compared to non-asthmatic Anglo-Saxons.

Conclusions: The genetic distribution of ß2AR polymorphisms in severe Israeli asthmatics is not different from that of non-asthmatic Israelis and therefore its clinical impact on asthma is probably minimal.






[1] ß2AR =  beta 2 adrenergic receptor


July 2001
Boaz Meijer, MD, David Branski, MD and Eitan Keren, MD

Background: Prevention of cigarette smoking is an important issue in public health policy. Since most adult smokers began smoking in childhood, understanding behavor­ial factors associated with smoking initiation would contribute to smoking initiation programs. Health-related behavior may vary between different ethnic groups.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of smoking among Jewish and Arab adolescents in Jerusalem, and whether there are differences in smoking initiation between the two ethnic groups.

Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in the 6th to 11th grades (age range 11-17 years) of a Jewish school and an Arab school in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. A total of 791 questionnaires was analyzed, 479 from the Jewish students and 312 from the Arab students.

Results: The lowest prevalence of smoking was found among Arab female students and the highest among Jewish female students (9% vs. 41%, P<O.OO1). The prevalence of smoking among Jewish and Arab males was similar. More Arab female students smoked than their mothers. Peer pressure seemed to be a more important factor among Jewish students.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the presence of ethnic differences in smoking prevalence and the reasons for smoking among adolescents in Israel. These results suggest the need for specific smoking prevention policies for different ethnic groups.

May 2001
Manfred S. Green, MD, PhD, Gali Aharonowitz, MD, Tamy Shohat, MD, MPH, Rachel Levine, MD, Emilia Anis, MD, MPH and Paul E. Slater, MD, MPH

Background: Between 1970 and 1979, there was an increase in the incidence of viral hepatitis in Israel with a shift of peak incidence to an older age in the Jewish population, followed by a declining trend during the early 1980s. In July 1999 universal immunization of infants against hepatitis A was introduced.

Objective: To evaluate the chan-ges in the epidemiology of viral hepatitis A in Israel during the past decade.

Methods: Viral hepatitis is a notifiable disease in Israel and cases are reported to the regional health offices, which in turn provide summary reports to the Ministry of Health's Department of Epidemiology. The data in this study were derived from the summary reports and from results of seroprevalence studies.

Results: Following the increase in the incidence of reported viral hepatitis (mainly due to type A) between 1970 and 1979, the rates then stabilized and around 1984 began to decline until 1992. Since then there has been a slight increase. Whereas until 1987 the rates were consistently higher in the Jewish population. since then they are higher in the Arab population. The shift in the peak age-specific incidence from the 1-4 to the 5-9 year age group observed in the Jewish population around 1970 occurred 20 years later in the Arab population. The previously described seasonality is no longer evident. Recent seroprevalence studies indicate that by age 18 years only about 30-40% of the Jewish population have anti-hepatitis A antibodies.

Conclusions: The decline in the incidence of hepatitis probably reflects the changing socioeconomic condition occurring at different times in the two major population groups. Since hepatitis A accounts for almost all the acute viral hepatitis in Israel, the universal vaccination of infants introduced in 1999 should substantially lower the morbidity within the next few years.

Legal Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or medical advice on any matter.
The IMA is not responsible for and expressly disclaims liability for damages of any kind arising from the use of or reliance on information contained within the site.
© All rights to information on this site are reserved and are the property of the Israeli Medical Association. Privacy policy

2 Twin Towers, 35 Jabotinsky, POB 4292, Ramat Gan 5251108 Israel