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עמוד בית
Sun, 25.02.24

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January 2008
A. Kapitany, Z. Szabo, G. Lakos, N. Aleksza, A. Vegvari. L. Soos, Z. Karanyi, S. Sipka, G. Szgedi and Z. Szekanecz

Background: The presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibody is highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis. Certain HLA-DR4 (HLA-DRB1*04) alleles, also known as the "shared epitope," are associated with increased susceptibility to RA[1]. In addition, these alleles may also have relevance for disease outcome. Anti-CCP[2] antibody positivity has been associated with the presence of HLA-DR4 alleles in patients with RA. However, there is little information available regarding any relationship between quantitative anti-CCP production (serum anti-CCP concentrations) and the shared epitope.

Objectives: To determine the association between anti-CCP antibody production and various HLA-DRB1 alleles.

Methods: Serum anti-CCP, rheumatoid factor and C-reactive protein levels were assessed in 53 RA patients. All these patients underwent HLA-DRB1 genotyping.

Results: Of the 53 patients 33 (62%) were positive for anti-CCP antibody. We found significant correlations between anti-CCP and RF[3] positivity (chi-square = 6.717, P < 0.01), as well as between anti-CCP and HLA-DRB1*04 positivity (chi-square = 5.828, P < 0.01). There was no correlation between RF positivity and serum levels, CRP[4] serum levels and HLA-DRB1*04 positivity. When quantitatively comparing serum anti-CCP levels with shared epitope positivity, patients carrying one or two copies of HLA-DRB1*04 alleles had significantly higher anti-CCP concentrations (530.0 ± 182.6 U/ml) compared to DRB1*04-negative patients (56.8 ± 27.4 U/ml) (P < 0.01). There was no difference in serum anti-CCP antibody concentrations between patients carrying only one HLA-DRB1*01 allele but no HLA-DRB1*04 allele (12.0 ± 8.6 U/ml) in comparison to SE[5]-negative patients (76.8 ± 56.2 U/ml). Regarding non-SE HLA-DRB1 genotypes, all 6 patients (100%) carrying DRB1*15 alleles and 6 of 7 (85%) patients carrying DRB1*13 were anti-CCP positive. In addition, patients with HLA-DRB1*13 (282.5 ± 23.8 U/ml) and DRB1*15 (398.7 ± 76.2 U/ml) produced significantly more anti-CCP than did any other non-SE HLA-DRB1 subtypes (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: There is significant association between anti-CCP and RF, as well as between anti-CCP and SE positivity in RA. In addition, the presence of one or two copies of HLA-DRB1*04 alleles has been associated with higher serum anti-CCP antibody levels. Thus, patients carrying HLA-DRB1*04 alleles exhibited an overall tenfold increase in serum anti-CCP antibody levels in comparison to HLA-DRB1*04-negative subjects. Increased anti-CCP production may also be associated with other non-SE HLA-DRB1 genotypes, such as DRB1*13 or DRB1*15. In reports by other investigators, both anti-CCP concentrations

[1] RA = rheumatoid arthritis

[2] anti-CCP = anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide

[3] RF = rheumatoid factor

[4] CRP = C-reactive protein

[5] SE = shared epitope

Y. Katz, M.R. Goldberg, G. Zadik-Mnuhin, M. Leshno and E. Heyman

Background: Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to cow’s milk protein represents a major problem for infants who are not breast fed. A search for substitute milks revealed a cross-allergenicity to milk derived from goat and sheep but not to milk from a mare. We noted that the cow, goat and sheep species are both artiodactyls and ruminants, defining them as kosher animals, in contrast to the mare.

Objectives: To determine whether patients with IgE[1]-mediated cow’s milk allergy are cross-sensitized to milk from other species such as the deer, ibex, buffalo, pig and camel.

Methods: Patients with a clinical history consistent with IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy were tested by skin prick test to validate the diagnosis. They were then evaluated by skin-prick test for cross-sensitization to milk-derived proteins from other species.

Results: All patients allergic to cow's milk tested positive by skin-prick test for cross-reactivity to deer, Ibex and buffalo (n=24, P = 0). In contrast, only 5 of the 24 patients (20.83%) tested positive to pig milk and only 2 of 8 (25%) to camel’s milk. Cross-sensitization to soy milk was noted in 4 of 23 patients (17.39%), although they all tolerated oral ingestion of soy-containing foods.

Conclusions: A significant cross-sensitization to milk proteins derived from kosher animals exists in patients allergic to cow's milk protein, but far less so compared to the milk proteins from non-kosher animals tested. Patients with proven IgE-mediated allergy to cow’s milk can utilize the above findings to predict suitable alternative sources of milk.

[1] Ig = immunogloublin

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