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עמוד בית
Mon, 24.06.24

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December 2022
Tanya Ebert MD, Nimrod Goldschmid MD, Edmond Sabo MD, Efrat City-Elifaz MD

Background: School closures due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak affected students physically, socially, and psychologically with an increase in the number of children and adolescent presenting with anxiety, depression, and drug abuse.

Objectives: To examine the impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on the mental health of minors during the pandemic period and to characterize the type and number of referrals to a regional psychiatric outpatient clinic.

Methods: This study included 380 children evaluated in an outpatient child psychiatric clinic. They were divided into two groups: before the lockdowns (BLD) (n=248), from January 2019 to February 2020, and during the lockdowns (LD) (n=132), from March 2020 to April 2021.

Results: When comparing the LD to BLD, there was increase in suicide attempts (9.8% vs. 2.8%) and in the use of psychotherapy (81% vs. 56%). There was a decrease in the diagnoses of behavior disorders (29.5% vs. 44.8%) and ADHD (29.5% vs. 50%); as well as a decrease in stimulant usage (22.7% vs. 38%). There was a statistically non-significant increase in the number of children with depression, anxiety, and drug-use disorder.

Conclusions: Many children developed educational, social, emotional, and behavioral gaps during LD, and they lost skills to deal with everyday problems due to social isolation. It is important to follow the long-term impact of the lockdowns and social isolation.

May 2012
D. Amital, H. Amital, G. Shohat, Y. Soffer and Y. Bar-Dayan

Background: On 4 February 2008, two terrorists armed with suicide bombs arrived at the open market in the southern Israeli city of Dimona. One detonated his bomb at approximately 10:30 a.m. causing multiple casualties. Short-term emotional effects and acute stress reactions usually appear among survivors after such incidents.

Objectives: To compare the differences in emotions and in disturbances of daily life activities that emerge a couple of days following such an event and to identify patterns of stress development among resilient and low-resilient members of the population in Dimona and in the general population of Israel.

Methods: A telephone survey of two randomly selected representative samples of adults (428 Israeli residents and 250 Dimona residents) was conducted 2 days after the event.

Results: A higher prevalence of stress and fear and a lower prevalence of joy were reported among the population of Dimona compared to the general population in Israel (P < 0.05). Differences were also recorded when the population of Dimona was categorized by their personal degree of resilience (P < 0.05). A higher prevalence of disturbances in daily life activities and changes in leisure activity was found in the low-resilient population in Dimona (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that following a public terror event, self-reported low-resilient subjects have a higher prevalence of disturbances in daily life activities, as well as adverse emotional responses. These differences must be addressed by the relevant social service agencies for immediate public intervention

April 2007
N. Lipovetzky, H. Hod, A. Roth, Y. Kishon, S. Sclarovsky and M. S. Green

Background: Previous studies found some factors such as physical exertion, anger and heavy meals to be triggers for acute coronary syndrome.

Objectives: To estimate the relative risk of an ACS[1] episode associated with positive and negative emotional experiences and anger as potential work-related triggers.

Methods: A total of 209 consecutive patients were interviewed a median of 2 days after a cardiac event that occurred at work or up to 2 hours later. The case-crossover design was used. Positive and negative emotional experiences and anger episodes in the hours immediately before the onset of ACS were compared with episodes in the comparable hours during the previous workday. For anger the episodes were compared with the usual frequency at work during the previous year. Positive and negative emotional experiences were assessed by the PANAS questionnaire (Positive and Negative Affect Scale), and anger by the Onset Anger Scale.

Results: The relative risks of an acute coronary event during the first hour after exposure to negative and positive emotional experiences were RR[2] = 14.0 (95% confidence interval 1.8–106.5) and RR = 3.50 (95% CI[3], 0.7–16.8) respectively and RR = 9.0 (95% CI, 1.1–71) for an episode of anger. Using conditional logistic regression analysis, the highest relative risk was associated with negative emotional experiences.

Conclusions: Negative emotional experiences and anger at work can trigger the onset of an ACS episode. This could have implications for recognizing a cardiac event as a work accident. The implementation of stress-reduction programs in the workplace or use of preventive medications in workers at high risk for coronary heart disease should be investigated.







[1] ACS = acute coronary syndrome

[2] RR = relative risk

[3] CI = confidence interval


February 2007
D. Heymann, Y. Shilo, A. Tirosh, L. Valinsky, S. Vinker

Background: In 2003 a total of 43 soldiers in the Israel Defense Forces committed suicide; only 20% of them were known to the IDF[1] mental health services. Somatic symptoms are often the only presentation of emotional distress during the primary care visit and may be the key to early identification and treatment.

Objectives: To examine whether the information in the medical records of soldiers can be used to identify those suffering from anxiety, affective or somatoform disorder.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study using the information in the electronic medical records of soldiers who during their 3 year service developed affective disorder, anxiety, or somatoform disorder. A control group was matched for recruitment date, type of unit and occupation in the service, and the Performance Prediction Score. The number and reasons for physician visits were collated.

Results: The files of 285 soldiers were examined: 155 cases and 130 controls. The numbers of visits (mean SD) during the 3 and 6 month periods in the case and control groups were 4.7 ± 3.3 and 7.1 ± 5.0, and 4.1 ± 2.9 and 5.9 ± 4.6 respectively. The difference was statistically significant only for the 6 month period (P < 0.05). The variables that remained significant, after stepwise multivariate regression were the Performance Prediction Score and the presenting complaints of back pain and diarrhea.

Conclusions: These findings may spur the development of a computer-generated warning for the primary care physician who will then be able to interview his or her patient appropriately and identify mental distress earlier. 






[1] IDF = Israel Defense Force


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