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עמוד בית
Tue, 04.10.22

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March 2022
Aaron Lubetsky MD MSc

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is very common in cancer patients and is a marker of increased mortality in these patients. Treatment is associated with increased rates of recurrent thrombosis and bleeding and has undergone significant change in the last years with the increasing use of direct oral anticoagulants. Diagnosis of PE and risk stratification is possible with minor changes to existing risk scores. Thrombolytic therapy should be considered in appropriate patients.

October 2021
Andrei Braester MD, Galia Stemer MD, Sahar Khouri MD, Bennidor Raviv MD, and Masad Barhoum MD

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious disease, which demands a fast accurate diagnosis to begin suitable treatment. It presents a major problem in the emergency department (ED), and its confirmation requires adequate evaluation.

Objectives: To evaluate a potential role of mean platelet volume (MPV) in differentiating VTE from other potential diagnosis in patients with suspected VTE.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-controlled study of 440 consecutive patients who presented to the ED of our hospital with clinical VTE, but only 316 with proven VTE. A control group was composed of patients (124) who presented with clinical VTE but without proven VTE. We checked the MPV value in all 440 patients and the correlation with VTE occurrence in the study group vs. control group.

Results: Statistical analysis of the acquired results indicated that MPV value could not aid in determining the difference of real VTE vs. patients with VTE-like clinical picture presenting to the ED. We found an inverse correlation between MPV value and proven VTE, in contrast to most researchers who have studied the same issue.

Conclusions: Although MPV can be a useful diagnostic marker in many diseases, we found no definite association between low MPV and VTE

January 2021
Ariel Rokach MD MHA, Sarit Hochberg-Klein MD, Nissim Arish MD, Victoria Doviner MD, Rachel Bar-Shalom MD, Yehonatan Turner MD, Norman Heching MD, and Samuel N. Heyman MD
November 2020
Hezzy Shmueli MD, Arie Steinvil MD, Galit Aviram MD, Sileman Moaad MD, Adam Sharon MD, Achiude Bendet MD, Simon Biner MD, Yacov Shacham MD, Jack Sherez MD, Ricki Megidish MD, Yifat Hasin MD, Ester Elazar MD, Sevan Letourneau-Shesaf MD, Gad Keren MD ,Shlomo Berliner MD, and Yan Topilsky MD

Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered to be one of the most common cardiovascular diseases with considerable mortality. Conflicting data imply possible role for echocardiography in assessing this disease.

Objectives: To determine which of the echo parameters best predicts short-term and long-term mortality in patients with PE.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled 235 patients who underwent computed tomography of pulmonary arteries (CTPA) and transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE) within < 24 hours. TTE included a prospectively designed detailed evaluation of the right heart including right ventricular (RV) myocardial performance index (RIMP), RV end diastolic and end systolic area, RV fractional area change, acceleration time (AT) of pulmonary flow and visual estimation. Interpretation and performance of TTE were blinded to the CTPA results.

Results: Although multiple TTE parameters were associated with PE, all had low discriminative capacity (AUC < 0.7). Parameters associated with 30-day mortality in univariate analysis were acceleration time (AT) < 81 msec (P = 0.04), stroke volume < 44 cc (P = 0.005), and RIMP > 0.42 (P = 0.05). The only RV independent echo parameter associated with poor long-term prognosis (adjusted for significant clinical, and routine echo associates of mortality) was RIMP (hazard ratio 3.0, P = 0.04). The only independent RV echo parameters associated with mortality in PE patients were RIMP (P = 0.05) and AT (P = 0.05). Addition of RIMP to nested models eliminated the significance of all other parameters assessing RV function.

Conclusions: Doppler-based parameters like pulmonary flow AT, RIMP, and stroke volume, have additive value in addition to visual RV estimation to assess prognosis in patients with PE.

September 2019
Arthur Shiyovich MD and Ran Kornowski MD FESC FACC

Aortic stenosis (AS) is a common valvular pathology and is increasing in prevalence. Severe symptomatic AS is associated with serious outcomes if left untreated. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an innovative modality, which has revolutionized the treatment of AS. With growing experience and technological upgrades, TAVI has become a valid alternative to surgical valve replacement. However, TAVI is associates with increase non-negligible risks of mortality, stroke, physical disability, and healthcare expenditures. Furthermore, imaging modalities have shown new ischemic lesions in most patients following TAVI (silent strokes), which might be related to worse subsequent neurocognitive function. Embolic protective devices are emerging as a safe, technically feasible implements to reduce the burden of periprocedural thromboembolism, and have shown promising results of improved clinical outcomes.

March 2019
Daniel Erez MD, Matthew Koslow MD, Gali Epstein Shochet PhD, Zamir Dovrish M, Lilach Israeli-Shani MD, David Dahan MD, Daniel King MD, and David Shitrit MD

Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most frequently occurring cardiovascular disease. However, the clinical presentation in patients with PE is variable.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of radiological findings detected in contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) and their significance in patients with PE; and to assess whether the CTA findings differed in patients receiving tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy from those who did not.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed CTA scans of 186 patients diagnosed with acute PE. Incidental findings on CTA scan were assessed, including mediastinal and parenchymal lymph nodes, pleural effusion, space-occupying lesions, consolidations, emphysema, and pericardial effusion.

Results: Patients receiving tPA (19.9%) were less likely to have pleural effusion (29.7% vs. 50.3%, P = 0.024). Other CTA findings did not differ between the tPA and non-tPA groups, including lung infiltrates (40.5% vs. 38.9, P = 0.857), space-occupying lesions (5.4% vs. 6.7%, P = 1), pericardial effusion (8.1% vs. 8.7%, P = 1), emphysema (21.6% vs. 17.4%, P = 0.557), lung (18.9% vs. 24.2%, P = 0.498), and mediastinal ( 24.3% vs. 25.5%, P = 0.883) lymph nodes, respectively.

Conclusion: The prevalence of pleural effusion (unilateral or bilateral) was higher in patients not treated with tPA. Therefore, in patients with a borderline condition, the presence of pleural effusion could support the decision not to give tPA treatment.

April 2014
George Habib MD MPH, Munir Nashashibi MD and Sara Gips MD
Background: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is considered the method of choice for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE). In most patients with impaired renal function, ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scanning is the preferred modality.

Objectives: To evaluate the predictive value of V/Q scanning in patients with impaired renal function.

Methods: We assessed all patients with impaired renal function who underwent V/Q scanning. The patients studied included those who also had CTPA (group 1) and those who did not (group 2). We recorded the results of V/Q scanning, chest X-rays, CTPA, D-dimer levels, ultrasound of deep veins, and clinical probability for PE (Wells' score) in group 1. CTPA results were considered true results. Anticoagulant treatment was documented in all the patients.

Results: Of the 45 patients in group 1, 12 (22%) had positive CTPA for PE. The positive predictive value (PPV) for patients with high probability results on V/Q scanning for PE was 30%. Restricting results to D-dimer levels ≥ 1000 ng/ml added little to this value. Restricting results to Wells’ score ≥ 7 resulted in 72% PPV. The negative predictive values for low or moderate probability were ~79 % and ~67% respectively. Of the 95 patients in group 2, all those with high probability for PE were treated with anticoagulants.

Conclusions: Patients with impaired renal function and high probability for PE on V/Q scanning had very low PPV for PE. Due to the lack of CTPA studies, patients with high probability for PE on V/Q scanning were treated with anticoagulants.

August 2013
M.W. Moloi, F. Zhou, K. Baliki, M.K. Kayembe, F. Cainelli and S. Vento
February 2011
G. Berger, Z.S. Azzam, E. Hardak, Y. Tavor and M. Yigla

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is an isolated small-vessel disease comprising vasoconstriction, remodeling and thrombosis of small pulmonary arteries. However, there is evidence that IPAH[1] does not respect anatomic boundaries and might extend into large vessels such as large central thrombi. On the other hand, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) represents a distinct category of pulmonary hypertension as it is thought to be due to an occlusion of the major pulmonary arteries following a thromboembolic event. However, it is currently evident that in most patients, there is a concomitant small-vessel disease. The involvement of both small and large vessels in both IPAH and CTEPH[2] together with a high incidence of silent thromboembolic events might create difficulties in identifying the true cause of pulmonary hypertension. An accurate diagnosis of the cause determines the management and prognosis. Patients with CTEPH can potentially be offered curative surgery in the form of pulmonary endarterectomy; however, oxygen, vasodilators, anticoagulation, and lung transplantation are more feasible options for IPAH.






[1] IPAH = idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension



[2] CTEPH = chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension


July 2009
S. Schwartzenberg, J. Sherez, D. Wexler, G. Aviram and G. Keren

Isolated ventricular non-compaction is a frequently underdiagnosed rare congenital cardiomyopathy. The importance of diagnosing this cardiomyopathy lies especially in asymptomatic patients, screening relatives of index cases in order to focus on their follow-up and searching for criteria warranting prophylactic anticoagulation, implantable cardioverter defibrillator and anti-remodeling drugs such as angiotensin-converting inhibitors. We present the clinical and imaging characteristics of this entity and discuss some of the therapeutic dilemmas involving these patients.
 

February 2009
T. Davidson, O. Goitein, A. Avigdor, S. Tzila Zwas and E. Goshen

Background: Venous thromboembolism is a well-recognized and relatively frequent complication of malignancy, whereas tumor thrombosis is a rare complication of solid cancers. Correct diagnosis of tumor thrombosis and its differentiation from VTE[1] can alter patient management and prevent unnecessary long-term anticoagulation treatment.

Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography to the diagnosis of tumor thrombosis and its differentiation from VTE.

Methods: PET/CT[2] scans from 11 patients with suspected tumor thrombosis were retrospectively evaluated. Suspicion arose from positive PET/CT in eight cases, or from findings on contrast-enhanced CT in three patients. Criteria for positivity of PET/CT included increased focal or linear uptake of 18F-FDG[3] in the involved vessel. Findings were categorized as PET/CT positive, or PET/CT negative and compared to contrast-enhanced or ultrasound Doppler, pathology where available, and clinical follow-up.

Results: Eight occult tumor thromboses were identified by PET/CT-positive scans. Underlying pathologies included pancreatic, colorectal, renal cell, and head-neck squamous cell carcinoma, as well as lymphoma (4 patients). Three thrombotic lesions on contrast-enhanced CT were PET/CT negative, due to VTE (2 patients) and leiomyomatosis. Accuracy of PET/CT to differentiate between tumor thrombosis and benign VTE was 100% in this small study.

Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced CT defines the extent of thrombotic lesions, while the functional information from PET/CT characterizes the lesions. It appears that PET/CT may be helpful in the diagnosis of occult tumor thrombosis and its differentiation from VTE.






[1] VTE = venous thromboembolism



[2] PET/CT = positron emission tomography/computed tomography


[3] FDG = fluorodeoxyglucose


 
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