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עמוד בית
Tue, 27.02.24

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February 2020
Hussein Zaitoon MD, Ellen Bamberger MD, Liat Yaniv MD, Bracha Mendelson MD, Isaac Srugo MD and Irina Chistyakov MD

Background: The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-13 (PCV-13) has reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease.

Objective: To characterize true positive blood cultures of children who presented to our hospital following implementation of the PCV-13 vaccine.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on positive blood cultures of children presenting with fever from 2010–2017. Subjects were divided into two age groups: a younger group 3–36 months and an older group 3–18 years. Patients were classified as either having or not having a focus of infection at the time of their bacteremia. Pneumococcal isolates were typed at Israel's Streptococcal Reference Laboratory.

Results: The samples included 94 true positive blood cultures. Focal infection with concomitant bacteremia was more common than bacteremia without a focus both overall: 67/94 (71%) vs. 27/94 (28.7%), P <0.001 as well as in the two groups: 32/48 (66%) vs. 16/48 (33%), P = 0.02 in the younger group and 35/46 (76%) vs. 11/46 (24%), P = 0.001 in the older group. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common pathogen overall, 27/94 (29%), and in the younger group, 21/48 (44%), but rare in the older group, 6/46 (13%). In the latter, Brucella species predominated, 12/46 (26%), along with Staphylococcus aureus 12/46 (26%).

Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with other studies reporting decreased pneumococcal bacteremia, bacteremia primarily accompanying focal infection, and changing etiological agents among PCV-13-vaccinated children. Brucella species was prominent in older children with osteoarticular infections. Ongoing surveillance is warranted to better understand the implications of PCV-13.

May 2010
O. Hochwald, E.S. Bamberger, L. Rubin, R. Gershtein and I. Srugo

Background: An outbreak of pertussis occurred in a daycare center with 87.5% vaccination coverage.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of the acellular pertussis vaccine and prevention of pertussis after chemoprophylaxis with azithromycin.

Methods: We studied 31 daycare children aged 3–5.5 years exposed to a child with pertussis. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained for Bordetella pertussis culture and polymerase chain reaction initially, and at days 21 and 60 of follow-up, in cases exhibiting symptoms.

Results: Of the 31 daycare children 6 (19%) tested positive for B. pertussis by PCR[1], 4 of whom had not been vaccinated against the disease. Of the two vaccinated children who contracted pertussis, one had milder symptoms and the other was asymptomatic. The incidence of pertussis was significantly lower in the vaccinated group (2/27) than in the unvaccinated group (4/4) (P = 0.000), with efficacy of the vaccine calculated to be 92.5%. Azithromycin chemoprophylaxis was taken only by 14 of the 25 exposed children (56%). On day 21 follow-up, there was no further laboratory-diagnosed B. pertussis cases in any of the exposed children, regardless of whether or not chemoprophylaxis was taken.

Conclusions: Based on the children’s clinical manifestations and PCR findings a pertussis outbreak had occurred in the daycare center studied. Our findings support the importance of pertussis vaccination since all the unvaccinated children in the daycare center contracted the infection.

 



[1] PCR = polymerase chain reaction
 
 
May 2006
O. Hochwald, E. Bamberger and I. Srugo

The Israel Ministry of Health’s epidemiology department reported a record number of 1564 new pertussis cases in 2004. This brings the incidence rate to 23 per 100,000 population, indicating a marked increase in the prevalence of pertussis, from 1–3/100,000 in 1998, 9 in 2001, to 14 in 2003. The rate of atypical pertussis presentations in vaccinated patients, the decline in pertussis immunity post-vaccination, and the decreased awareness of potential infections in the adult population make the diagnosis of pertussis difficult and contribute to the rising incidence. In this article we review the current literature in order to increase awareness of the occurrence of pertussis in children as well as adults, discuss the laboratory diagnostic methods being used, and report the currently recommended means of treating the disease.

H. Joffe, E. Bamberger, S. Nurkin, E. Kedem, Z. Kra-Oz, S. Pollack and I. Srugo

Background: The co-morbidity of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases in Israel has not been established. 

Objectives: To compare the prevalence of STDs [1]among HIV[2]-positive patients to HIV-negative patients visiting an STD clinic in northern Israel. 

Methods: Between December 2000 and December 2001, 176 HIV-positive individuals (53% males) were screened and compared to 200 HIV-seronegative individuals (76% males). Demographics, symptomatology and risk factors were obtained via questionnaire. First-void urine samples were tested for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Serum was tested for type-specific herpes simplex virus-2, hepatitis B and syphilis. 

Results: Relative to the seronegative STD patients, HIV-positive patients exhibited significantly greater risk-reducing sexual behaviors such as consistent condom use [29/86 (33.7%) vs. 16/187 (8.6%), P < 0.001], and abstinence in the previous 6 months [43/125 (34%) vs. 7/185 (3.8%), P < 0.001]. Nevertheless, STD prevalence was higher among HIV-positive than HIV-negative patients (79.5% vs. 37.5%, P < 0.001). HSV[3]-2, syphilis and HBV[4] were more common among HIV-positive than HIV-negative patients [120/175 (68.8%)] vs. 18/200 (9%), P < 0.001)], [43/161 (26.7%) vs. 0%, P < 0.001)], [13/171 (7.6%) vs. 3/200 (1.5%), P < 0.01)], respectively. In contrast, Chlamydia and gonorrhea were more commonly found in HIV-negative patients than HIV-positive patients [3/176 (1.7%) vs.13/200 (6.5%), P < 0.05] vs. [0% vs.5/200 (2.5%), P < 0.05], respectively. 

Conclusion: Despite the low risk sexual behavior of Israeli HIV patients, they had a high prevalence of chronic STDs (e.g., HSV-2, HBV and syphilis). The lower prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea among HIV-immunosuppressed patients may be attributed to routine antibiotic prophylaxis against opportunistic infections. Nevertheless, as advocated by international health organizations, it appears prudent to recommend the routine screening of these asymptomatic HIV-positive patients for STD pathogens. 


 




[1] STD = sexually transmitted diseases

[2] HIV = human immunodeficiency virus

[3] HSV = herpes simplex virus

[4] HBV = hepatitis B virus


June 2005
E. Bamberger, N. Lahat, V. Gershtein, R. Gershtein, D. Benilevi, S. Shapiro, I. Kassis, L. Rubin and I. Srugo
 Background: Whereas the diagnosis of classical pertussis has traditionally been based on clinical criteria, increasing numbers of atypical presentations suggest the need for an extensive laboratory-based approach.

Objectives: To assess the relative efficacy of clinical and laboratory methods in the diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis by patient age and immunization status.

Methods: We compared the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of B. pertussis in 87 pre-vaccinated, 78 recently vaccinated, and 75 post-vaccinated children with suspected pertussis. Serum and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained for serology, culture and polymerase chain reaction.

Results: PCR[1] and culture identified 41% and 7% of patients with B. pertussis, respectively (P < 0.001). All positive cultures were PCR-positive. Positive PCR was less common among those recently vaccinated than among those in the pre- (P < 0.001) and post-vaccinated groups (P < 0.05). Positive culture was more common among those pre-vaccinated than among those recently vaccinated (P < 0.01). Positive tests for immunoglobulin M and A were more common among the post-vaccinated than the pre- and recently vaccinated (P < 0.001), respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that clinical criteria have no significant association with infection in recently and post-vaccinated children. Among the pre-vaccinated children, whoop and cough duration were associated with a positive PCR (odds ratio 7.66 and 0.5, P < 0.001). Seventy-six percent of pre-vaccinated, 39% of recently vaccinated and 40% of post-vaccinated children with positive PCR did not meet the U.S. Centers for Disease Control diagnostic criteria for B. pertussis.

Conclusions: PCR is a useful tool for pertussis diagnosis, particularly in pre-vaccinated infants. The yield of culture and serology is limited, especially among pre- and recently vaccinated children. In pre-vaccinated infants with whoop and less than 2 weeks of cough, PCR testing should be implemented promptly.


 





[1] PCR = polymerase chain reaction


April 2005
E. Bamberger, R. Madeb, J. Steinberg, A. Paz, I. Satinger, Z. Kra-0z, O. Natif and I. Srugo
Background: Although the current literature attributes most cases of hematospermia to an infectious agent, identification of the specific pathogens involved has been limited.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of different pathogens in patients presenting to our sexually transmitted disease clinic with hematospermia.

Methods: Between January 1999 and January 2000, 16 patients presented to our STD[1] clinic with hematospermia after other non-infectious pathologies had been excluded by a referring physician. After obtaining informed consent, subjects completed a questionnaire addressing symptoms and sexual behavior. First void urine samples, as well as genitourinary and serum specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Herpes simplex virus. Standard bacterial cultures were also performed.

Results: Laboratory testing detected a pathogen in 12 of the 16 males presenting with hematospermia. The sexually transmitted pathogens detected were Herpes simplex virus in 5 patients (42%), Chlamydia trachomatis in 4 (33%), Enterococcus fecalis in 2 (17%), and Ureaplasma urealyticum in 1 (8%). In all cases in which a pathogen was identified, the appropriate antimicrobial agent was administered. Symptoms resolved for each patient following antimicrobial therapy. During a 1 year follow-up, all 12 patients remained free of disease.

Conclusions: Recent advances in microbiologic diagnostic techniques have facilitated the detection of pathogens in patients with hematospermia, thereby enhancing the efficacy of treatment.

____________________

[1] STD = sexually transmitted disease

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