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עמוד בית
Wed, 17.07.24

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September 2023
Shlomit Tamir MD, Marva Dahan Shemesh MD, David Margel MD, Yaara Bar PhD, Maxim Yakimov MD, Yael Rapson MD, Ahuva Grubstein MD, Eli Atar MD, Ofer Benjaminov MD

Background: Age-related changes in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate have been reported in the general population but not in screening cohorts.

Objectives: To evaluate age-related changes on prostatic mpMRI in a screening cohort of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

Methods: Asymptomatic BRCA1/2 mutation carriers underwent mpMRI as part of a screening program. All included patients were followed for 3 years with no evidence of prostate cancer. mpMRIs were retrospectively evaluated by two abdominal radiologists for peripheral zone (PZ) patterns on T2 (homogenous hyperintensity, wedge-shaped hypointensities, patchy hypointensities, or diffuse hypointensity), and transition zone (TZ) pattern on T2 (homogenous, heterogeneous, nodular). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of PZ and TZ were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using a predefined age cutoff of 50 years old.

Results: Overall, 92 patients were included: 38 in the younger age group (40–49 years) and 54 in the older age group (50–69 years). PZ homogenous hyperintensity and wedge-shaped hypointensities were more common in the older patients, whereas diffuse hypointensity was more common in younger patients (P < 0.001 for both readers) with substantial inter-reader agreement between the readers (kappa=0.643). ADC values were lower in young patients in the PZ (P < 0.001) and TZ (P = 0.003).

Conclusions: Age-related differences in mpMRI were validated in BRCA mutation carriers. As some features overlap with prostatic carcinoma, awareness is crucial, specifically to diffuse T2 hypointensities of the PZ and lower ADC values in the PZ and TZ, which are more common in younger patients.

September 2021
Boris Zingerman MD, Yaacov Ori MD, Asher Korzets MD, Michal Herman-Edelstein MD, Netta Lev MD, Benaya Rozen-Zvi MD, and Eli Atar MD

Background: Among dialysis patients, occlusive mesenteric vascular disease has rarely been reported.

Objectives: To report on the experience of one center with regard to diagnosing and treating this complication.

Methods: The retrospective case-series involved six patients (3 females, 3 males; age 52–88 years; 5/6 were smokers) on chronic hemodialysis at a single center. All patients with symptoms suggestive of occlusive mesenteric disease and a subsequent angiographic intervention were included. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient charts for the period before and after angioplasty and stenting of the mesenteric vessels. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the relevant data before and after the intervention.

Results: All participants had variable co-morbidities and postprandial abdominal pain, food aversion, and weight loss. CT angiography was limited due to heavy vascular calcifications. All underwent angioplasty with stenting of the superior mesenteric artery (4 patients) or the celiac artery (2 patients). All procedures were successful in resolving abdominal pain, malnutrition, and inflammation. Weight loss before was 15 ± 2 kg and weight gain after was 6 ± 2 kg. C-reactive protein decreased from 13.4 ± 5.2 mg/dl to 2.2 ± 0.4 mg/dl (P < 0.05). Serum albumin increased from 3.0 ± 0.2 g/dl to 3.9 ± 0.1 g/dl (P < 0.05). Two patients underwent a repeat procedure (4 years, 5 months, respectively). Follow-up ranged from 0.5–7 years.

Conclusions: Occlusive mesenteric ischemia occurs among dialysis patients. The diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion, and it is manageable by angiography and stenting of the most involved mesenteric artery.

February 2016
Alisher Tashbayev MD, Alexander Belenky MD, Sergey Litvin MD, Michael Knizhnik MD, Gil N. Bachar MD and Eli Atar MD

Background: Various vena cava filters (VCF) are designed with the ability to be retrieved percutaneously. Yet, despite this option most of them remain in the inferior vena cava (IVC). 

Objectives: To report our experience in the placement and retrieval of three different types of VCFs, and to compare the indications for their insertion and retrieval as reported in the literature.

Methods: During a 5 year period three types of retrievable VCF (ALN, OptEase, and Celect) were inserted in 306 patients at the Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson and Hasharon hospitals). Indications, retrieval rates, median time to retrieval, success and complications rate were viewed and assessed in the three groups of filter types and were compared with the data of similar studies in the literature.

Results: Of the 306 VCFs inserted, 31 (10.1%) were retrieved with equal distribution in the three groups. In most patients the reason for filter insertion was venous thromboembolic events (VTE) and contraindications to anticoagulant therapy. Mean age was 68.38 ± 17.5 years (range 18–99) and was noted to be significantly higher compared to similar studies (53–56 years) (P < 0.0001). Multi-trauma patients were significantly older (71.11 ± 14.99 years) than post-pulmonary embolism patients (48.03 ± 20.98 years, P < 0.0001) and patients with preventive indication (26.00 ± 11.31, P < 0.0001). The mean indwelling time was 100.6 ± 103.399 days. Our results are comparable with the results of other studies, and there was no difference in percentage of retrieval or complications between patients in each of the three groups. 

Conclusions: In 1 of 10 patients filters should be removed after an average of 3.5 months. All three IVC filter types used are safe to insert and retrieve.


June 2012
E. Atar, C. Neiman, E. Ram, M. Almog, I. Gadiel and A. Belenky

Background: The presence of stones in the common bile duct (CBD) may cause complications such as obstructing jaundice or ascending cholangitis, and the stones should be removed.

0bjectives: To report our results with percutaneous elimination of CBD stones from the gallbladder through the papilla.

Methods: During a 4 year period, six patients (five men and one woman, mean age 71.5 years) who had CBD stones and an existing gallbladder drain underwent percutaneous stone push into the duodenum after balloon dilatation of the papilla, with a diameter equal to that of the largest stone. Access into the CBD was from the gallbladder, using an already existing percutaneous gallbladder drain (cholecystostomy tube).

Results: Each patient had one to three CBD stones measuring 7–14 mm. Successful CBD stone elimination into the duodenum was achieved in five of the six patients. The single failure occurred in a patient with choledochal diverticulum, who was operated successfully. There were no major or minor complications during or after the procedures.

Conclusions: Trans-cholecystic CBD stone elimination is a safe and feasible percutaneous technique that utilizes existing tracts, thus obviating the need to create new percutaneous access. This procedure can replace endoscopic or surgical CBD exploration.

November 2010
E. Atar, R. Kornowski and GN.. Bachar

Background: Coronary CT angiography is an accurate imaging modality; however, its main drawback is the radiation dose. A new technology, the "step and shoot," which reduces the radiation up to one-eighth, is now available.

Objectives: To assess our initial experience using the "step-and-shoot" technology for various vascular pathologies.

Methods: During a 10 month period 125 consecutive asymptomatic patients (111 men and 14 women aged 25–82, average age 54.9 years) with various clinical indications that were appropriate for step-and-shoot CCTA[1] (regular heart rate < 65 beats/minute and body weight < 115 kg) were scanned with a 64-slice multidetector computed tomography Brilliance scanner (Philips, USA). The preparation protocol for the scan was the same as for the regular coronary CTA. All examinations were interpreted by at least one experienced radiologist and one experienced interventional cardiologist. The quality of the examinations was graded from 1 (excellent imaging quality of all coronary segments) to 4 (poor quality, not diagnostic). There were 99 patients without a history of coronary intervention, 13 after coronary stent deployment (19 stents), and 3 after coronary artery bypass graft.

Results: Coronary interpretation was obtained in 122 examinations (97.6%). The imaging quality obtained was as follows: 103 patients scored 1 (82.4%), 15 scored 2 (12%), 4 scored 3 (3.2%) and 3 scored 4 (2.4%). The grades were unrelated to cardiac history or type of previous examinations. Poor image quality occurred because of sudden heart rate acceleration during the scan (one patient), movement and respiration (one patient), and arrhythmia and bad scan timing (in one). Two patients were referred to percutaneous coronary intervention based on the CCTA findings, which correlated perfectly.

Conclusions: Step-and-shoot CCTA is a reliable technique and CCTA algorithm comparable to the regular CCTA. This technique requires the lowest radiation dose, as compared to other coronary imaging modalities, that can be used for all CCTA indications based on the inclusion criteria of low (> 65 bpm) and stable heart rate.

[1] CCTA = coronary computed tomography angiography

April 2010
D. Dicker, P. Herskovitz, M.Katz, E. Atar and G.N. Bachar

Background: Obesity has become a major public health problem worldwide.

Objectives: To examine the effect of orlistat in promoting weight loss and its specific effect on the visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue as evaluated by computed tomography.

Methods: A prospective case series study of 10 obese subjects was conducted. The 6 women and 4 men, age 50–67 years (mean 59 ± 8 years), had a mean body mass index of 34.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2. All subjects were prescribed a mildly hypocaloric diet (600 kcal/day deficit). In addition, all subjects were treated with orlistat 120 mg 3 times a day for 20.1 ± 7 weeks.

Results: The subjects had lost approximately 8.2 kg each, or 8.4% of their initial body weight. Mean body weight decreased from 98 ± 13 to 89.8 ± 13.6 kg at the last follow-up visit (P = 0.0001) mean BMI[1] decreased from 34.1 ± 3.2 to 30.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2 (P = 0.0001), and mean waist circumference from 113.8 ± 11.4 to 107.6 ± 10 cm (P = 0.0006). Mean total abdominal adipose tissue volume, evaluated by computed tomography, decreased from 426 ± 104.3 to 369.8 ± 99.6 mm3 (P = 0.0001). Mean abdominal SAT[2] volume decreased from 251.1 ± 78.8 to 224 ± 81.1 mm3 (P = 0.006), and mean abdominal VAT[3] volume decreased from 176 ± 76.7 to 141.6 ± 67 mm3 (P = 0.0001). Thus, the total abdominal adipose tissue volume for the whole group decreased by 15.4%, and most of this decrease was attributable to the reduction in VAT (24.8%) as opposed to SAT (only 12% reduction) (P = 0.03). The weight reduction that occurred during the study was accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effect of orlistat in reducing human visceral adipose tissue as evaluated by CT. The benefit of the treatment is further supported by the statistically significant reduction in cardiovascular risk factors.

[1] BMI = body mass index

[2] SAT = subcutaneous adipose tissue

[3] VAT = visceral adipose tissue


February 2010
E. Ram, D. Alper, E. Atar, I. Tsitman and Z. Dreznik

Background: Rectal intussusception, rectocele and rectal prolapse are anatomic disorders in obstructed defecation syndrome. A relatively new surgical approach, Stapled Transanal Rectal Resection, was designed to treat these anomalies.

Objectives: To present our preliminary results with this technique.

Methods: Thirty patients with ODS[1] not responding to medical treatment or biofeedback were operated on with the STARR[2] technique. All the patients underwent a complete workup in the Pelvic Floor Unit. The operation was performed according to the technique described elsewhere.

Results: The patients' mean age was 67.1 years, and the median duration of symptoms was 7 years. The mean operating time was 40 minutes (range 35–80 min) and the mean hospital stay was 2 days (range 1–4 days). The mean follow-up was 26 months (range 6–48 months). ODS symptoms were ameliorated in 27 patients (90%), decreased significantly in 18, and in 9 patients the symptoms disappeared. The procedure failed in 3 patients (10%). Complications included minor bleeding that required homeostasis in eight patients during the operation. Three patients had transient tenesmus and five patients had anal pain. There were no cases of mortality or pelvic sepsis.

Conclusions: STARR is an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of obstructed defecation syndrome due to rectal intussusception, rectocele and small rectal prolapse.


[1] ODS = obstructed defecation syndrome

[2] STARR = Stapled Transanal Rectal Resection

October 2009
E. Atar, R. Avrahami, Y. Koganovich, S. Litvin, M. Knizhnik and A. Belenky

Background: Critical limb ischemia is an increasingly common condition that has high surgical morbidity and limited non-surgical options.  

Objectives: To evaluate the use of silicon carbide-coated Motion stents, as compared to reported data for bare metal stents, in elderly patients with infrapopliteal artery stenoses causing critical limb ischemia after failed or complicated percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

Methods: Between January 2003 and March 2004, 41 stents were inserted into 17 consecutive patients (11 males, 6 females, mean age 82 years, range 75–93) following unsuccessful or complicated PTA[1]. Seven patients had one-vessel run-off, six had two-vessel and four had three vessel run-off. All patients suffered from CLI[2], had up to three lesions and more than one co-morbid condition, and were considered at high surgical risk. Silicon carbide-coated Motion coronary stents, 2.5–4 mm diameter and 25 and 30 mm length, were used. Pre-intervention assessment included clinical condition, ankle brachial index, Doppler ultrasound and digital subtracted angiography. Post-intervention evaluation included clinical condition, ABI[3], and Doppler ultrasound at 3, 6 and 12 months.

Results: The technical success rate per lesion was 100% (41/41). Two patients died of unrelated causes after 2 and 8 months respectively. Primary patency rates with duplex ultrasound were 68.7% (11/16) at 3 months, 43.7% (7/16) at 6 months and 40% (6/15) after 12 months. Nine patients developed complete occlusion in 13 stents; three of these patients underwent a below-knee amputation and two patients a partial foot amputation. Re-intervention (PTA only) was performed in 7 patients (43.7%). Secondary patency rate was 81.2% (13/16) at 6 months and 60% (9/15) at one year. Mean ABI index had improved at 6 months from 0.32 to 0.67, and to 0.53 at one year. Clinical improvement was evident in 87.5% (14/16) at 6 months and in 66.6% (10/15) at one year.

Conclusions: Silicon carbide-coated stents are comparable to bare metal stents after 6 and 12 months in infrapopliteal interventions in CLI when stenting is indicated.


[1] PTA = percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

[2] CLI = critical limb ischemia

[3] ABI = ankle brachial index

September 2008
R. Kornowski, G. N. Bachar, D. Dvir, S. Fuchs and E. Atar

Background: Cardiac computed tomography angiography is a relatively new imaging modality to detect coronary atherosclerosis.

Objectives: To explore the diagnostic value of CTA[1] in assessing coronary artery disease among asymptomatic patients.

Methods: In this retrospective single-centered analysis, 622 consecutive patients underwent CTA of coronary arteries between November 2004 and May 2006 at the Mor Institute for Cardiovascular Imaging in Bnei Brak, Israel. All patients were asymptomatic but had at least one risk factor for atherosclerotic CAD[2]. The initial 244 patients were examined with the 16-slice Brilliance CT scanner (Philips, Cleveland, OH, USA), and in the remaining 378 patients the 64-slice scanner (GE Healthcare, The Netherlands) with dedicated cardiac reconstruction software and electrocardiography triggering was used. Scanning was performed in the cranio-caudal direction. Images reconstructed in different phases of the cardiac cycle using a retrospective ECG-gated reconstruction algorithm were transferred to a dedicated workstation for review by experienced CT radiologists and cardiologists.

Results: Of 622 patients, 52 (8.4%) had severe obstructive atherosclerosis (suspected ≥ 75% stenosis) according to CTA interpretation. Invasive coronary angiography was performed in 48 patients while 4 patients had no further procedure. A non-significant CAD (e.g., diameter stenosis < 70%) was identified in 6 of 48 patients (12%) by selective coronary angiography. Forty-two patients showed severe CAD with at least one lesion of ≥ 70% stenosis. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 35 patients and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in the other 4 patients. Angioplasty procedures were successful in all 35 patients and stents were utilized in all cases without complications. No further complications occurred among the study cohort undergoing either PCI[3] or surgery. The 6 month survival rate in these patients was 100%.

Conclusions: Non-invasive coronary CTA appears to be a reliable technique, with reasonably high accuracy, to detect obstructive atherosclerosis in asymptomatic high risk patients for atherosclerotic CAD.

[1] CTA = computed tomography angiography

[2] CAD = coronary artery disease

[3] PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention

October 2007
G. Levy, L. Goldstein, A. Blachar, S. Apter, E. Barenboim, Y. Bar-Dayan, A. Shamis and E. Atar

A thorough medical inquiry is included in every aviation mishap investigation. While the gold standard of this investigation is a forensic pathology examination, numerous reports stress the important role of computed tomography in the postmortem evaluation of trauma victims. To characterize the findings identified by postmortem CT and compare its performance to conventional autopsy in victims of military aviation mishaps, we analyzed seven postmortem CT examinations. Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 57.8% of traumatic findings, identified by postmortem CT. The most frequent findings were fractures of the rib (47%), skull (9.6%) and facial bones (8.6%). Abnormally located air accounted for 24% of findings, for which CT was superior (3.5% detected by autopsy, 100% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001).  The performance of autopsy in detecting injuries was superior (autopsy detected 85.8% of all injuries, postmortem CT detected 53.9%, P < 0.001), especially in the detection of superficial lesions (100% detected by autopsy, 10.5% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001) and solid organ injuries (100% by autopsy, 18.5% by postmortem CT, P < 0.001), and in the detection of musculoskeletal injuries (91.3% for autopsy, 90.3% for postmortem CT, P = not significant). Postmortem CT and autopsy have distinct performance profiles, and although the first cannot replace the latter it is a useful complementary examination.

July 2004
E. Atar

Gadolinium-based agents are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging as contrast agents. These agents are radio-opaque enough for diagnostic imaging of the vascular tree by using digitally subtracted images as well as for imaging of the biliary system and the urinary tract. The recommended doses for gadolinium do not impair renal function or cause adverse reactions in patients with iodine sensitivity; thus patients with such conditions can safely undergo diagnostic angiography, either by MRI angiography or by catheterization using gadolinium as contrast agent, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

June 2004
E. Atar, G. Feldman, H. Neyman, E. Tzypin, A. Belenky and M. Katz
January 2004
December 2003
G.N. Bachar, A. Belensky, F. Greif, E. Atar, Y. Gat, M. Itkin and A. Verstanding

Background: Ovarian vein embolization was recently suggested as the preferred treatment for chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

Objective: To evaluate the technical feasibility, complications and early clinical and radiographic results of ovarian vein embolization in women with pelvic pain syndrome.

Methods: Percutaneous transcatheter ovarian vein embolization with coils was performed in six patients aged 27–53 years who presented with pelvic pain syndrome. All had lower abdominal pain, and pelvic varicosities were found on Doppler ultrasound and retrograde ovarian vein venography. Embolization was done unilaterally in three patients (on the left side) and bilaterally in three. Mean follow-up by telephone questionnaire was 7.3 months.

Results: The procedure was technically successful in all patients. Two patients reported partial relief of symptoms (33.3%) and three had complete relief (50%), for a total of 5 patients (83.3%) with some measure of improvement. There were no complications following the procedure.

Conclusions: Percutaneous transcatheter ovarian vein embolization seems to be safe and feasible for the treatment of pelvic pain syndrome. The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis and is well tolerated by patients.

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