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עמוד בית
Mon, 26.02.24

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January 2024
Karam Azem MD, Shai Fein MD MHA, Yuri Matatov MD, Philip Heesen MD, Leonid A Eidelman MD, Michael Yohay Stav MD, Yoel Shufaro MD PhD, Sharon Orbach-Zinger MD, Cristian Arzola MD MSc

Background: Pulmonary aspiration is a potentially lethal perioperative complication that can be precipitated by gastric insufflation. Face mask ventilation (FMV), a ubiquitous anesthetic procedure, can cause gastric insufflation. FMV with an inspiratory pressure of 15 cm H2O provides the best balance between adequate pulmonary ventilation and a low probability of gastric insufflation. There is no data about the effects of FMV > 120 seconds.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of prolonged FMV on gastric insufflation.

Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study at a tertiary medical center with female patients who underwent oocyte retrieval surgery under general anesthesia FMV. Pre- and postoperative gastric ultrasound examinations measured the gastric antral cross-sectional area to detect gastric insufflation. Pressure-controlled FMV with an inspiratory pressure of 15 cm H2O was continued from the anesthesia induction until the end of the surgery.

Results: The study comprised 49 patients. Baseline preoperative gastric ultrasound demonstrated optimal and good image quality. All supine measurements were feasible. The median duration of FMV was 13 minutes (interquartile range 9–18). In the postoperative period, gastric insufflation was detected in only 2 of 49 patients (4.1%). There was no association between the duration of FMV and delta gastric antral cross-sectional area (β -0.01; 95% confidence interval -0.04 to 0.01, P = 0.31).

Conclusions: Pressure-controlled FMV with an inspiratory pressure of 15 cm H2O carries a low incidence of gastric insufflations, not only as a bridge to a definitive airway but as an alternative ventilation method for relatively short procedures in selective populations.

March 2014
Sharon Orbach-Zinger, Alexander Ioscovich, Amir Aviram, Sergei Babytz, Shai Fein, Alon Reuveni and Leonid A. Eidelman
 Background: Postoperative pain is a common problem after cesarean deliveries.

Objectives: To characterize common obstetric anesthesia practices after cesarean deliveries in Israel in order to standardize postoperative pain relief protocols.

Methods: A questionnaire was completed during an interview with every obstetric anesthesia unit in all 25 delivery wards in Israel. Data were gathered on intraoperative anesthesia and analgesia protocols as well as postoperative pain relief protocols. A sub-analysis compared units whose director completed a formal obstetric anesthesia training program with those whose directors did not.

Results: Neuraxial morphine was used routinely in 12% of hospitals. No unit providing intrathecal morphine complied with American Society of Anesthesiologists guidelines for respiratory monitoring after use of neuraxial opioids. Additionally, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were used routinely in only half the wards, while patient-controlled analgesia was used infrequently. Postoperative verbal analog scores were not recorded routinely in 71% of units on postoperative day 1. The unit director's training significantly influenced the unit protocols.

Conclusions: Intrathecal morphine, the gold standard of care in cesarean deliveries, is rarely used, mainly due to shortage of staff and lack of formal obstetric anesthesia training. In addition, NSAIDs are also underused. There is a need for more formal training for obstetric anesthesiologists in Israel.

August 2011
S. Orbach-Zinger, R. Rosenblum, S. Svetzky, A. Staiman and L.A. Eidelman

Background: There is a growing shortage of anesthesiologists practicing in Israel. This shortage is in contrast with the United States where anesthesiology has become a very desired specialty.

Objectives: To discover what factors attract Israeli students to choose a residency and how students view the option of choosing anesthesiology.

Methods: We sent questionnaires to students in the Israeli and American programs at Tel Aviv University’s Sackler Faculty of Medicine asking about factors that influenced their choice of residency and the advantages and disadvantages of a residency in anesthesiology. Although the students were studying at the same medical school and hospitals, students in the Israeli program were planning to enroll in Israeli residency programs while students in the American program planned to apply for residency in the United States.

Results: A significantly larger proportion of American students (12.9%) were interested in an anesthesiology residency when compared with the Israeli students (0%) (P = 0.034). American students considered salary and working conditions to be advantages of the anesthesiology residency while Israeli students considered Israeli working conditions and salaries to be a disadvantage.

Conclusions: Whereas there is considerable interest among American students at Sackler Medical School in an anesthesia residency, there is little interest among Israeli students.
 

September 2009
A.I. Eidelman, O. Megged, R. Feldman and O. Toker

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is the single leading cause of pediatric admissions for infants in the first year of life, presenting regularly in epidemic proportions in the winter months and impacting in a major way on pediatric inpatient services.

Objective: To quantitate the burden of RSV[1] disease on a pediatric service with the purpose of providing a database for proper health planning and resource allocation.

Methods: We conducted a prospective 5 year study of documented RSV infections in a single pediatric service. RSV disease was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence testing of nasal swabs from all hospitalized cases of bronchiolitis.

Results: On average, 147 ± 17 cases of RSV bronchiolitis were admitted annually in the November–March RSV season, representing 7%–9% of admissions and 10%–14% of hospital days. There was a consistent male preponderance of admissions (55–64%) and 15–23% of admissions were patients less than 1 month old. In peak months RSV cases accounted for as many of 40% of the hospitalized infants and was the leading cause of over-occupancy (up to 126%) in the pediatric ward during the winter,

Conclusions: RSV infection is a major burden for pediatric inpatient services during the winter season. This recurrent and predictable “epidemic,” which regularly leads to over-occupancy, requires increased manpower (nursing) and resources (beds, pulse oximeters) to facilitate proper care. Since this annual event is not a surprise nor an unexpected peak, but rather a cyclical predictable epidemiological phenomenon, proper planning and allocation of services are crucial.






[1] RSV = respiratory syncytial virus


June 2009
Y. Shoenfeld, J. Shemer, G. Keren, Y. Blachar, L.A. Eidelman and M. Borow
October 2006
V.H. Eisenberg, D. Raveh, Y. Meislish, B. Rudensky, Y. Ezra, A. Samueloff, A.I. Eidelman and M.S. Schimmel
 Background: Previous assessments of maternal group B Streptococcus carrier rates in women delivering at Shaare Zedek Medical Center ranged between 3.5 and 11% with neonatal sepsis rates of 0.2–0.9/1000 live births. Because of low colonization and disease rates, routine prenatal cultures of GBS[1] were not recommended, and intrapartum prophylaxis was mainly based on maternal risk factors.

Objectives: To determine whether this policy is still applicable. 

Methods: We performed prospective sampling and follow-up of women admitted for labor and delivery between February 2002 and July 2002. Vaginal and rectal cultures were obtained before the first pelvic examination. GBS isolation was performed using selective broth medium, and identified by latex agglutination and serotyping. Demographic data were collected by means of a standardized questionnaire. Data on the newborns were collected throughout 2002.

Results: Of the 629 sampled women, 86 had a positive culture and a carrier rate of 13.7%. A borderline significantly higher carriage rate was observed among mothers of North American origin (21% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.048), and a higher attack rate in their infants (3.8/1000 compared with 0.5/1000 live births in our general maternal population, P = 0.002). Eight newborns had early-onset neonatal GBS sepsis (a rate of 0.8/1000 live births), but none of them benefited from intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis.

Conclusions: An increased neonatal disease rate was observed in a population with a higher colonization rate than previously seen. In lieu of the higher carrier rates, we now recommend routine prenatal screening for GBS in our perinatal population.


 





[1] GBS = group B Streptococcus


April 2006
C. Weissman, L.A. Eidelman, R. Pizov, I. Matot, N. Klein and R. Cohn

Background: Anesthesiology is a vital specialty that permits the safe and humane performance of painful procedures. Most Israeli anesthesiologist are immigrants, while only a minimal number of Israeli medical school graduates enter the specialty. Unfortunately, the supply of immigrant physicians is declining due to falling immigration rates.

Objectives: To examine the current Israeli anesthesiology workforce and project future needs.

Methods: Demographic and professional information about Israeli hospital anesthesiologists was solicited from anesthesiology department heads. Data were also gathered about the past, present and projected future growth, age distribution and birth rate of the Israeli population. Needs and demand-based analyses were used to project future anesthesiology workforce requirements.

Results: Data about 711 anesthesiologists were obtained from 30 hospital anesthesiology department heads. Eighty-seven anesthesiologists (12.2%) graduated from Israeli medical schools and 459 (64.6%) graduated from medical schools in the former Soviet Union. Among the 154 anesthesiology residents were ≤ 40 years old, and only 13 (8.4%) graduated from Israeli medical schools There are approximately 10.8 anesthesiologists per 100,000 population. Projections for 2005–2015 revealed a need for 250–300 new anesthesiologists.
Conclusions: The anesthesiology workforce is predominantly composed of immigrants. This has vast implications for the future viability of the specialty because of the continuing reduction in immigration, the lack of interest in the specialty by Israeli medical school graduates, and the projected need for many new anesthesiologists to replace retirees and to provide care to a growing and aging population

September 2005
S. Schwartz, A.I. Eidelman, A. Zeidan, D. Applebaum and D. Raveh
Background: Large family size may be a risk factor for childhood accidents. A possible association with quality of child supervision and rapidity of seeking medical care has not been fully evaluated.

Objectives: To determine whether children with multiple siblings are at increased risk for accidents, to assess whether quality of child supervision varies with family size, and to evaluate the relationship of family size with the rapidity of seeking medical care after an accident.

Methods: We prospectively studied 333 childhood accidents treated at TEREM (emergency care station) or Shaare Zedek Medical Center. Details on family composition and the accident were obtained through parental interview. Family size of the study population was compared with that of the Jerusalem population. Families with one to three children (Group 1) and four or more children (Group 2) were compared with regard to type of supervision and different "Gap times" – the time interval from when the accident occurred until medical assistance was sought ("Gap 1"), the time from that medical contact until arrival at Shaare Zedek ("Gap 2"), and the time from the accident until arrival at Shaare Zedek for those children for whom interim medical assistance either was ("Gap 3A") or was not ("Gap 3B") sought.

Results: Children from families with 1, 2, 3, 4 and ≥5 children comprised 7.2%, 18.3%, 14.4%, 18.6% and 41.4% of our sample compared to 20.4%, 21.8%, 18.4%, 14.7% and 24.7% in the general population respectively. Children from Group 2 were less often attended to by an adult (44.5% vs. 62.0%) and more often were in the presence only of other children at the time of the accident (27.0% vs. 10.5%). Gaps 1, 2 and 3A in Group 2 (6.3 hours, 16.5 hours, 27.8 hours respectively) were longer than for Group 1 (2.7, 10.7, 13.3 hours respectively).

Conclusions: The risk for accidents is increased among children from families with four or more children. The adequacy of child supervision in large families is impaired. There is a relative delay from the time of the accident until these children are brought for treatment. 

April 2005
Y. Schlesinger, D. Reich, A.I. Eidelman, M.S. Schimmel, J. Hassanim and D. Miron
Background: The incidence of congenital cytomegalovirus in Israel has never been determined, either in general or in relation to various population subgroups. We recently proved the utility of newborn urine polymerase chain reaction as a screening tool for congenital CMV[1].

Objectives: To define the incidence of congenital CMV infection in two different subpopulations, as a model for the entire population of Israel.

Methods: Urine specimens were randomly collected from 2,000 newborns in Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, and HaEmek Medical Center, Afula (1,000 specimens each). These hospitals have many characteristic differences, presumably representing the diverse population of Israel. Urine specimens were subjected to a CMV PCR[2] reaction and positive specimens were validated by urine viral culture. Maternal seroprevalence was determined in a representative sample of the mothers in each hospital. Epidemiologic characteristics of the mothers were extracted from hospital records and compared.

Results: The population in Shaare Zedek Medical Center was mostly Jewish (95.8%) and urban (87.0%), as compared to that of HaEmek Medical Center (49.2% and 61.0%, respectively, P < 0.01). Nevertheless, CMV seroprevalence was similar: 81.5% and 85%, respectively. Ten (1.0%) and 4 (0.4%) newborns, respectively, were found to have congenital CMV infection (not significant).

Conclusions: The combined incidence of congenital CMV infection in the study population was 0.7% (95% confidence interval 0.3–1.0%). If this rate is extrapolated to the entire population of Israel, then a total of 945 cases of congenital CMV can be expected among the 135,000 annual deliveries. A nationwide screening program for congenital CMV should be considered.

________________

[1] CMV = cytomegalovirus

[2] PCR = polymerase chain reaction

November 2003
G.W. Diamond, Y. Senecky, D. Schurr, J. Zuckerman, D. Inbar, A. Eidelman and H.J. Cohen

Background: The number of child adoptions from abroad is increasing, but the adverse living conditions of these children prior to the adoption raise questions on their medical and neurodevelopmental status, particularly since there are no guidelines for pre- or post-adoption medical evaluation.

Objectives: To describe the condition of a cohort of young children who were candidates for adoption in East European orphanages and foster homes, and to determine those attributes associated with a family's decision to adopt or refuse a particular child.

Methods: Eighty-two young children, median age 11 months, were evaluated by Israeli pediatricians in Eastern Europe between 3 weeks and 6 months prior to their adoption. The evaluation consisted of comprehensive medical and neurodevelopmental testing on site using a battery of standardized assessment tools, and observation of free play and social interactive behaviors recorded on videotape. Laboratory tests included complete blood count, chemistries, serology screening, and metabolic and genetic testing.

Results: The children were growth-retarded. Medical problems were classified as resolved (pneumonia and diarrhea) in 32.8%; or ongoing, such as hepatitis B and (3, failure to thrive, organomegaly, and visual and hearing disorders, in 14.8%. Neuromotor status was grossly abnormal in 13.4%. Twenty-two percent of the children were rejected for adoption by families in Israel. Factors associated with the adoption decision were performance skills on developmental testing (P = 0.0001), present medical status (P = 0.002), and weight )P = 0.016(.

Conclusions: Pre-placement comprehensive screening of children eligible for foreign adoption, which includes developmental screening, helps to identify a wide variety of strengths and impairments in a child's background before the adoption procedure is finalized. A family's decision to adopt or not was associated with the child's performance on Bayley Scales, weight, and current medical status, but not with language delays, serious past medical history or suspect family background.
 

April 2003
M. Eidelman, V. Bialik, Y. Miller and I. Kassis

Background: Puncture wounds in the feet of children present a clinical dilemma.

Objectives: To evaluate our approach, we reviewed the charts and all available images of 80 children admitted to our institution because of plantar punctures from 1988 to 1999.

Methods: The charts of 80 children were reviewed retrospectively.

Results: Three groups of patients were found: 59 with superficial cellulitis, 11 with retained foreign bodies, and 10 with osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis. There was a significant presentation delay in patients from the second and third groups. Most common organisms were Staphylococcus aureus or Group A Streptococcus. Of the 80 children, 34 were treated surgically and 46 were treated with antibiotic therapy alone. All patients with osteomyelitis and septic arthritis were re-examined; at follow-up, all but one were asymptomatic apart from residual radiologic sequelae in four.

Conclusions: Patients with an established infection 24–36 hours after a plantar puncture should be admitted to hospital for parenteral antibiotic therapy. Delayed presentation is a significant marker for deep-seated infection. Further infection or relapse after initial improvement suggests the presence of osteomyelitis or a retained foreign body. A bone scan is advisable in all patients with suspected osteomyelitis: a positive bone scan necessitates aggressive early debridement combined with appropriate antibiotics; while negative bone scan, X-ray and exploration suggest that the infection is due to a foreign body, which can be detected by computed tomography.
 

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