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עמוד בית
Mon, 22.07.24

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January 2006
R. Shaoul and A. Toubi

We present the case of a 14 day old baby in whom we observed the evolution of idippathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

November 2005
S. Gur, H. Hermesh, N. Laufer, M. Gogol and R. Gross-Isseroff

Adjustment disorder is a common diagnosis in psychiatric settings and carries a significant rate of morbidity and mortality. However, both current and previous diagnostic criteria are vague and lead to many difficulties in terms of validity and reliability. This review is based on a thorough literature search and a systematic evaluation of the empiric and theoretic data. The various pitfalls inherent in the process of diagnosing this disorder are discussed in light of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder.

October 2005
O. Nissim, M. Bakon, B. Ben Zeev, E. Goshen, N. Knoller, M. Hadani and Z. Feldman.
 Moyamoya disease is a cerebral vasculopathy characterized mainly by progressive narrowing of the major intracranial vessels. While more common and having a familial predilection in the Far East, it can also develop in association with some common hereditary diseases and can be acquired after environmental exposure. In the young its manifestations are the result of cerebral ischemia. Adults usually suffer from repeated incidents of intracerebral hemorrhage. Surgical revascularization of ischemic cerebral territories plays a major role in their treatment. We review the literature and present our series of three adult and five pediatric patients; these patients were diagnosed at our institution and treated with indirect revascularization techniques.

 

July 2005
T. Gaspar, D. Dvir and N. Peled
 Background: Computed tomography angiography enables non-invasive evaluation of the coronary arteries.

Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of 16-slice multi-detector CT angiography in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, and assess coronary bypass grafts and coronary anomalies.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 223 patients who were examined at our medical center over a period of 2 years with a 16-slice CT angiography scanner and retrospective electrocardiographic gating.

Results: There were no significant complications, and good visualization of the coronary arteries was achieved in all but eight patients. A high correlation with the results of the invasive angiography was noted (sensitivity 85%, specificity 93%, negative predictive value 98%). Altogether, 131 bypass conduits were examined with excellent graft visualization. Several coronary anomalies were detected, as were significant extra-cardiac findings.

Conclusions: Multi-slice CT angiography is a reliable non-invasive diagnostic procedure for demonstration of the coronary arteries and bypass grafts. In the future it will probably replace part of the diagnostic invasive coronary angiography and, as a result, a large proportion of coronary angiography procedures will be therapeutic.

June 2005
A. Kessler, H. Gavriel, S. Zahav, M. Vaiman, N. Shlamkovitch, S. Segal and E. Eviatar
 Background: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy has been well established as a diagnostic technique for selecting patients with thyroid nodules for surgical treatment, thereby reducing the number of unnecessary surgical procedures performed in cases of non-malignant tumors.

Objectives: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of FNAB[1] in cases of a solitary thyroid nodule.

Methods: The preoperative FNAB results of 170 patients who underwent thyroidectomy due to a solitary thyroid nodule were compared retrospectively with the final postoperative pathologic diagnoses.

Results: In cases of a solitary thyroid nodule, FNAB had a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 98.5%, accuracy of 87%, and positive and negative predictive values of 98.75% and 76.6% respectively. All cases of papillary carcinoma diagnosed by FNAB proved to be malignant on final histology, while 8 of 27 cases of follicular adenoma detected by preoperative FNAB were shown to be malignant on final evaluation of the surgical specimen.

Conclusions: FNAB cytology reduces the incidence of thyroidectomy since this method has excellent specificity and sensitivity and a low rate of false-negative results. It proved to be cost-effective and is recommended as the first tool in the diagnostic workup in patients with thyroid nodules.


 





[1] FNAB = fine-needle aspiration biopsy


December 2004
November 2004
A. Tarasiuk and H. Reuveni

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a major public health hazard affecting 2–4% of the adult population; only 10% of these patients are recognized by healthcare providers. In the last decade the number of referrals for polysomnography increased threefold in Israel, compared to 12-fold worldwide, and is expected to increase even more in the coming years. This constant demand for PSG[1] studies is beyond the current capacity of sleep laboratories, thus preventing diagnosis for most patients with suspected OSAS[2]. In the current review, we examine problems facing decision-makers on how to treat the increasing flood of patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of sleep-disordered breathing. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of current technologies for OSA diagnosis, i.e., laboratory versus at-home technologies. We conclude that no current alternative exists to the use of PSG for OSA diagnosis. When at-home technologies are suggested for OSAS diagnosis, data should be provided on factors influencing its cost-effectiveness, e.g., accuracy rates of diagnosis, relative cost of human resources, and case-mix of patients tested. Since PSG remains the gold standard for diagnosis of OSAS, in Israel resources should be allocated to increasing the volume of beds for PSG studies in order to increase access to diagnosis and treatment, which in turn provides better quality of life, saves scarce resources of the healthcare system, prevents unnecessary accidents and increases workers’ productivity.






[1] PSG = polysomnography

[2] OSAS = obstructive sleep apnea syndrome


April 2004
O. Yanay, T. Lerman-Sagie, E. Gilad, A. Nissenkorn, J. Jaferi, N. Watemberg and S. Houri
March 2004
R. Shaoul, B. Enav, Z. Steiner, J. Mogilner and M. Jaffe

Background: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis classically presents as projectile vomiting during the third to fourth week of life associated with good appetite. Additional classical presenting findings include palpation of the pyloric tumor, described as olive-shaped, a visible gastric peristaltic wave after feeding, and hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. It was recently claimed that this presentation has changed due to the easier access to gastrointestinal imaging.

Objective: To validate this contention and discuss possible reasons.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent pyloromyotomy for HPS[1] between 1990 and 2000. Only patients with confirmed HPS at the time of surgery were included. We also performed a comprehensive review of older studies for comparison.

Results: Seventy patients underwent pyloromyotomy over the 10 year period. Overall, 81% of patients were male infants and the mean age at diagnosis was 40 days. The mean duration of symptoms was 8 days. A firstborn child was noted in 43% of the cases. The classical symptom of projectile vomiting was absent in one-third of the patients, a pyloric tumor was not palpated in one-half of the cases, bicarbonate was higher than 28 mEq/L in 20% and a pH of above 7.45 was present in 25% of patients. Hypochloremia was noted in about one-third. We found a good correlation between ultrasonographic width and length of the pylorus and the intraoperative findings. Pylorus length ≥ 24 mm correlated with significantly longer duration of symptoms. When compared with previous studies, the main findings were not significantly different; namely, mean age at diagnosis, percentage of male gender and duration to diagnosis. The decrease in the number of pyloric tumors palpated paralleled the increase in the use of upper gastrointestinal series and ultrasonography in particular.

Conclusions: The clinical presentation of HPS has not actually changed despite the easier accessibility of GI imaging studies. However, the one significant change is the low percentage of pyloric tumors palpated, probably due to declining clinical skills, accompanied by earlier utilization of imaging studies. The use of imaging and laboratory studies did not change the age at diagnosis but may have shortened the time for diagnosis and reduced the postoperative stay. Imaging and laboratory studies may be helpful for the subgroup with a non-classical clinical presentation.






[1] HPS = hypertrophic pyloric stenosis


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