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עמוד בית
Thu, 13.06.24

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November 2022
Raymond Farah MD, Nicola Makhoul MD, Alexander Samohvalov MD, William Nseir MD

Background: An increased serum glucose level is a common finding among patients admitted to hospital with acute illness, including the intensive care unit (ICU), even without a history of previous diabetes mellitus (DM). Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is not only a diagnostic tool for DM but may also has prognostic value for diabetic and non-diabetic populations.

Objectives: To assess the relationship between HbA1c level on admission and clinical outcome among patients admitted to the ICU due to cardiopulmonary disorders with hyperglycemia.

Methods: Patients consecutively admitted to the ICU due to cardiopulmonary disorders who presented with hyperglycemia at admission were evaluated during a 6-month period. HbA1c and serum glucose levels were tested on admission and during the first 24–48 hours of hospitalization. Patients were divided according to HbA1c and compared in term of demographics. We evaluated the effect of HbA1c levels at admission on the clinical outcomes.

Results: Of patients with cardiopulmonary disorders who presented with hyperglycemia at admission to the ICU, 73 had HbA1c levels ≥ 6%, 92 had HbA1c levels < 6%: 63/165 (38.2%) known as diabetic patients. The 30-day all-cause mortality was higher in the group with high HbA1c levels; 38/73 vs. 32/98 (P = 0.02). Increased length of stay in the ICU and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score were associated with HbA1c ≥ 6% (P < 0.022 and P < 0.026), respectively

Conclusions: HbA1c ≥ 6% has an important clinical prognostic value among diabetic and non-diabetic patients with cardiopulmonary disorders and hyperglycemia.

August 2022
Ido Tzanani MD MPH, Daniel Bendayan MD, Anat Jaffe MD PHD, and Zohar Mor MD MPH MHA

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the risk factors for progression from latent to active tuberculosis. However, the effect of DM on subsequent tuberculosis treatment is still inconclusive.

Objectives: To compare tuberculosis treatment outcomes and the rate of drug resistance of tuberculosis patients with or without DM.

Methods: This case-control study was conducted between 2005 and 2015 at the only tuberculosis ward in Israel. All 80 tuberculosis patients who had DM and were hospitalized during the study period were included in this study, as were a randomized sample of 213 tuberculosis patients without DM. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient files in the hospital and clinics after discharge.

Results: Tuberculosis patients with DM were more often older and more likely to be Israeli citizens with a lower socioeconomic status than patients without DM. No statistically significant differences were found in clinical presentation, radiological findings, and sputum smear tests between the two groups. Culture converting times were prolonged in patients with DM compared to normoglycemic patients. Multidrug drug resistance tuberculosis was more common among normoglycemic tuberculosis patients than tuberculosis patients with DM (9.2% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.12). Treatment success rates were 76.2% and 83.1% for tuberculosis patients with or without DM, respectively (P = 0.18). DM was not statistically significant in the multivariate analysis predicting treatment success, which controlled for age, citizenship, compliance, addictions, and chronic diseases.

Conclusions: The presence of DM does not necessarily affect tuberculosis treatment outcomes as long as treatment compliance is optimal.

December 2021
Sâmara Paula Ferreira Mota Colares MSc, Guilherme Moura Colares MD, Jozélio Freire de Carvalho MD PhD, and Carlos Ewerton Maia Rodrigues MD PhD

Background: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a narrowing of the lumbar canal causing lower back pain, gluteal pain, and neurogenic claudication. LSS has been associated with cardiovascular co-morbidities. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a pro-inflammatory condition involving a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is increasingly prevalent worldwide.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of MetS in patients with LSS, compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and to explore potential associations between MetS and LSS-related clinical parameters and cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 64 patients diagnosed as symptomatic LSS (NASS criteria) and 32 controls. MetS was diagnosed using the 2009 Harmonizing criteria adjusted for South Americans. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for MetS. The level of statistical significance was set at 5%.

Results: The prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in the LSS group than in the control group (76.6% vs. 31.3%; P < 0.001). LSS patients displayed greater waist circumference (P = 0.003), blood glucose levels (P = 0.009) and arterial pressure (P < 0.001) than controls. The variables with independent influence on MetS in the logistic regression model were: diabetes (P = 0.008), blood glucose (P = 0.004), and body mass index (P = 0.005).

Conclusions: MetS was significantly more prevalent among LSS patients, and diabetes and elevated body mass index were found to be risk factors for MetS in these LSS patients

August 2018
Avi Porath MD MPH, Jonathan Eli Arbelle MD MHA, Naama Fund, Asaf Cohen and Morris Mosseri MD FESC

Background: The salutary effects of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well established. Although generally considered safe, statin therapy has been reported to contribute to induction of diabetes mellitus (DM).

Objectives: To assess the risk-benefit of statin therapy, prescribed for the prevention of CVD, in the development of DM.

Methods: In a population-based real-life study, the incidence of DM and CVD were assessed retrospectively among 265,414 subjects aged 40–70 years, 17.9% of whom were treated with statins. Outcomes were evaluated according to retrospectively determined baseline 10 year cardiovascular (CV) mortality risks as defined by the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation, statin dose-intensity regimen, and level of drug adherence.

Results: From 2010 to 2014, 5157 (1.9%) new cases of CVD and 11,637 (4.4%) of DM were observed. Low-intensity statin therapy with over 50% adherence was associated with increased DM incidence in patients at low or intermediate baseline CV risk, but not in patients at high CV risk. In patients at low CV risk, no CV protective benefit was obtained. The number needed to harm (NNH; incident DM) for low-intensity dose regimens with above 50% adherence was 40. In patients at intermediate and high CV risk, the number needed to treat was 125 and 29; NNH was 50 and 200, respectively.

Conclusions: Prescribing low-dose statins for primary prevention of CVD is beneficial in patients at high risk and may be detrimental in patients at low CV risk. In patients with intermediate CV risk, our data support current recommendations of individualizing treatment decisions.

July 2016
Mordechai Shimonov MD, Lior Leibou MD, Eduard Davidov MD, Olga Bernadsky MD, Julio Wainstein MD and Eyal Leibovitz MD

Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection of the gastric mucosa may be involved in the development of insulin resistance (IR). 

Objectives: To investigate the association between HP status in stomach biopsies and weight reduction in patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). 

Methods: In this retrospective analysis of medical charts, all patients who underwent LSG for weight reduction and had at least 1 year of follow-up were included. HP status was ascertained by two to four biopsies of the removed stomach. 

Results: The study group comprised 70 patients; their mean age was 45.9 ± 11.9 years and 31.9% were males. Fourteen patients (20%) tested positive for HP colonization in gastric mucosa. HP status was not associated with age or smoking status. No difference was noted in the rate of diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension, but patients with HP had lower rates of hyperlipidemia (0 vs. 29 patients, 52%, P < 0.001). Patients lost an average of 10.5 kg/m2 after 12 months of follow-up, and no difference was noted between HP-positive and HP-negative patients. The rate of DM control was also similar between HP-positive and HP-negative patients at baseline (33.3 vs. 29.4, P = NS) and at 12 months of follow-up (70% vs. 50%, P = NS). 

Conclusions: HP status was not associated with changes in metabolic profiles and co-morbidity status, or in the efficacy of LSG. 


Orit Erman MD, Arie Erman PhD, Alina Vodonos MPH, Uzi Gafter MD PhD and David J. van Dijk MD

Background: Proteinuria and albuminuria are markers of kidney injury and function, serving as a screening test as well as a means of assessing the degree of kidney injury and risk for cardiovascular disease and death in both the diabetic and the non-diabetic general population.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between proteinuria below 300 mg/24 hours and albuminuria, as well as a possible association with kidney function in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods: The medical files of patients with type 1 and type 2 DM with proteinuria below 300 mg/24 hours at three different visits to the Diabetic Nephropathy Clinic were screened. This involved 245 patient files and 723 visits. The data collected included demographics; protein, albumin and creatinine levels in urine collections; blood biochemistry; and clinical and treatment data. 

Results: The association between proteinuria and albuminuria is non-linear. However, proteinuria in the range of 162–300 mg/24 hours was found to be linearly and significantly correlated to albuminuria (P < 0.001, r = 0.58). Proteinuria cutoff, based on albuminuria cutoff of 30 mg/24 hours, was found to be 160.5 mg/24 hr. Body mass index (BMI) was the sole independent predictor of proteinuria above 160.5 mg/24 hr. Changes in albuminuria, but not proteinuria, were associated with changes in creatinine clearance. 

Conclusions: A new cutoff value of 160.5 mg/hr was set empirically, for the first time, for abnormal proteinuria in diabetic patients. It appears that proteinuria below 300 mg/24 hr is not sufficient as a sole prognostic factor for kidney failure. 


October 2015
Fruma Tzur MSc, Michal Chowers MD, Nancy Agmon-Levin MD, Yoseph A. Mekori MD and Alon Y. Hershko MD PhD

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic sequel in people infected with HIV, especially following the advent of HAART. This may be a particular concern in immigrants due to lifestyle changes. 

Objectives: To characterize the prevalence of DM in HIV-infected Ethiopians in Israel, and to define the risk factors.

Methods: We retrospectively screened the records of 173 HIV-infected Ethiopians and 69 HIV-infected non-Ethiopian HIV patients currently registered at the HIV Clinic of Meir Medical Center. Data were also retrieved from 1323 non-HIV Ethiopians treated in the hospital between 2007 and 2012. The presence of DM was determined by family physician diagnosis as recorded in the hospital database or by the presence of one or more of the following: fasting glucose > 127 mg/dl, hA1C > 6.5% (> 48 mmol/mol), or blood glucose > 200 mg/dl. Population data and risk factors for DM were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. 

Results: Among HIV-infected Ethiopian subjects, the prevalence of DM was 31% (54/173) compared to 4% (3/69) in HIV-infected non-Ethiopians and 8% (102/1323) in non-HIV-infected Ethiopians (P < 0.0001). The relatively increased prevalence of DM was age independent, but most noticeable in those under the median age (< 42 years). Body mass index (BMI) was a predictor for DM (OR 1.263, CI 1.104–1.444, P = 0.001), although its values did not vary between the two ethnic groups. 

Conclusions: HIV-infected Ethiopians are more likely to develop DM at low BMI values compared to non-Ethiopians. This observation questions the relevance of accepted BMI values in this population and suggests that preventive measures against DM be routinely taken in these subjects. 


June 2013
A. Hilmi, Y. Pasternak, M. Friger, N. Loewenthal, A. Haim and E. Hershkovitz
 Background: The existent glycemic control of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients in daily practice might not reach the goals determined in guidelines. Ethnic diversity was also shown to influence glycemic control.

Objectives: To evaluate glycemic control, prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at presentation, diabetic complications rate, and associated autoimmune diseases in a pediatric T1DM patient population in the Negev area.

Methods: Clinical and demographic details of 168 T1DM patients were evaluated, including HbA1C levels, long-term complications, related autoimmune diseases, and insulin pump usage. The data were analyzed and the Jewish and Bedouin patient groups compared.

Results: Only 13.1% of the patients had reached the HbA1C levels recommended by the current guidelines at the first and second year follow-up visits, and 9.5% and 7.1% at the third and fourth year visits, respectively. A significant difference in HbA1c levels between Jewish and Bedouin patients was found (P = 0.045 at the first year follow-up, P ≤ 0.01 thereafter). Significant difference was found between the Jewish and the Bedouin groups regarding presentation with DKA, 33% and 56% of the patients respectively (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Existent glycemic control in daily practice is far from the guideline goals. Bedouin ethnicity was associated with less favorable diabetes control, emphasizing the need for better awareness of T1DM and its treatment options in this population. More resources should be directed to address T1DM in the general population, especially among the Bedouin.


May 2012
L. Barski, R. Nevzorov, E. Rabaev, A.B. Jotkowitz, I. Harman-Boehm, M. Zektser, L. Zeller, E. Shleyfer and Y. Almog

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common and serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM).

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, hospital management and outcomes of patients with DKA.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with DKA during the period 1 January 2003 to 1 January 2010. Three groups were compared: patients with mild DKA, with moderate DKA, and with severe DKA. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes were 30 days all-cause mortality, length of hospital stay, and complication rate.

Results: The study population comprised 220 patients with DKA. In the mild (78 patients) and moderate (116 patients) groups there was a higher proportion of patients with type 1 DM (75.6%, 79.3%) compared with 57.7% in the severe group (26 patients, P = 0.08). HbA1C levels prior to admission were high in all three groups, without significant difference (10.9 ± 2.2, 10.7 ± 1.9, and 10.6 ± 2.4 respectively, P = 0.9). In all groups the most frequent precipitating factors were related to insulin therapy and infections. The patients with severe DKA had more electrolyte abnormalities (hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia) compared with the mild and moderate forms of the disease. While 72.7% of the entire cohort was hospitalized in the general medical ward, 80.8% of those with severe DKA were admitted to the intensive care unit. The in-hospital mortality rate for the entire cohort was 4.1%, comparable with previous data from experienced centers. Advanced age, mechanical ventilation and bedridden state were independent predictors associated with 30 day mortality: hazard ratio (HR) 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.11; HR 6.8, 95% CI 2.03–23.1; and HR 3.8, 95% CI 1.13–12.7, respectively.

Conclusions: Patients with DKA in our study were generally poorly controlled prior to their admission, as reflected by high HbA1c levels. Type 2 DM is frequently associated with DKA including the severe form of the disease. The most common precipitating factors for the development of DKA were related to insulin therapy and infections. Advanced age, mechanical ventilation and bedridden state were independent predictors of 30 day mortality.

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