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עמוד בית
Tue, 28.05.24

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January 2023
Muhamed Masalha MD, Lev Shlizerman MD, Salim Mazzawi MD, Ophir Handzel MD, Firas Kassem MD, Daniel Briscoe MD, Kfir Siag MD

Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media is a long-standing middle ear infection with a perforated tympanic membrane. Tympanoplasty is the mainstay of treatment. Most surgeons prefer to operate on dry ears; however, this may be difficult to achieve.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of otorrhea and positive cultures on the outcome of tympanoplasty.

Methods: This retrospective analysis reviewed patients with chronic suppurative otitis media who underwent tympanoplasty 2008–2015. Patients were divided into three groups: active discharge and bacterial growth, active discharge without bacterial growth, and no ear discharge. Surgical outcomes were compared among the groups.

Results: Among 101 patients included, 43 ears (42.6%) had discharge preoperatively, 58 (57.4%) were dry. Overall closure rate was 81.2% (82/101). Preoperative active discharge closure rate was 88.3% (38/43) and without discharge 75.9% (44/58). There were 38 positive cultures preoperatively and five negative cultures. Cultures were not obtained in 58 cases. Success rates were 89.5%, 80%, and 75.9%, respectively. No significant difference was found between patients who had positive or negative cultures before the procedure (P > 0.48) or among the three groups (P = 0.25). The most common bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=17), followed by Staphylococcus species (n=10). None was significantly associated with operative failure (P = 0.557). The postoperative air threshold difference was not affected by culture results (P = 0.3).

Conclusions: Tympanoplasty success rates and postoperative air threshold differences were not affected by the presence of preoperative otorrhea or positive ear cultures. Surgery can be performed even when the ear is not dry.

September 2015
Uri Yoel MD, Jacob Gopas PhD, Janet Ozer PhD, Roni Peleg MD and Pesach Shvartzman MD

Background: In recent years several reports have been published describing dogs’ ability to detect, by scent, patients with cancer. This ability is based on the sniffing of volatile organic elements that are secreted by malignant cells, react to them. 

Objectives: To evaluate the ability of trained dogs to detect (i) breast cancer cell cultures (MCF7) compared to the control pseudo-normal keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), and then (ii) melanoma (BG) and (iii) type 2 epithelial lung carcinoma (A549) malignant cell cultures to which they were not previously exposed in the course of their training.

Methods: Cell cultures were prepared in a standard manner. Two Belgian Shepherd dogs were trained and then tested in a single-blind test (for dogs and trainers) on their ability to detect the "target specimen," a MCF7 breast cancer cell culture. Following this, the ability of the dogs to detect cancer cell cultures that they were not previously exposed to (i.e., A549, BG) was tested. In each test round, four specimens placed in identical blocks were arranged in a line with one meter between them: one target specimen (MCF7, A549, BG), two control specimens (HaCaT), and a sample containing cell culture medium only.

Results: The two dogs picked out all the target specimens of MCF7 breast cancer cell cultures that they were trained to detect (10/10) as well as all the target specimens that they were not previously exposed to [A549 (5/5) and BG (5/5)], but did not pick out the control specimens or the cell culture medium. Thus, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for both dogs were 100%.

Conclusions: The results of this study support the assumption that cancer cells have a unique odor pattern, and that this odor pattern is common to different types of cancer.

 

July 2014
Arie Soroksky MD, Sergey Nagornov MD, Eliezer Klinowski MD, Yuval Leonov MD, Eduard Ilgiyaev MD, Orit Yossepowitch MD and Galina Goltsman M

Background: The role of routine active surveillance cultures (ASCs) in predicting consequent blood stream infections is unclear.

Objectives: To determine prospectively whether routine screening ASCs obtained on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) can predict the causative agent of subsequent bloodstream infections.

Methods: We prospectively studied a cohort of 100 mechanically ventilated patients admitted consecutively to a 16-bed ICU. On admission, ASCs were obtained from four sites: skin cultures (swabs) from the axillary region, rectal swabs, nasal swabs, and deep tracheal aspirates. Thereafter, cultures were obtained from all four sites daily for the next 5 days of the ICU stay.

Results: Of the 100 recruited patients 31 (31%) had culture-proven bacteremia; the median time to development of bacteremia was 5 days (range 1–18). Patients with bacteremia had a longer median ICU stay than patients without bacteremia: 14 days (range 2–45) vs. 5 days (1–41) (P < 0.001). ICU and 28 day mortality were similar in patients with and without bacteremia. Most ASCs grew multiple organisms. However, there was no association between pathogens growing on ASCs and eventual development of bacteremia.

Conclusions: ASCs obtained on ICU admission did not identify the causative agents of most subsequent bacteremia events. Therefore, bloodstream infections could not be related to ASCs.

December 2010
S. Lurie, H. Asaala, O. Schwartz Harari, A. Golan and O. Sadan

Background: Although the presence of bacteria in the cervix is not a sign of disease, the majority of pathogens involved in pelvic inflammatory disease originate from this "normal" flora.

Objectives: To assess the distribution of cervical non-gonococcal and non-chlamydial bacteria in hospitalized women with PID[1] and the bacteria's antibiotic sensitivity.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the cultures obtained from the uterine cervix over a 1 year period (2008) at Wolfson Medical Center, Holon. The distribution of cervical non-gonococcal and non-chlamydial bacteria in women with PID and the bacteria's antibiotic sensitivity was compared to that in our previous 1 year study that was performed at Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot (1988–89). 

Results: In 2008, a total of 412 cultures were obtained of which 126 (30.5%) were sterile. The prevalence of negative cultures was similar in 2008 and in 1988, namely, 30.5% and 33.7%, respectively (P = 0.23). PID was finally diagnosed in 116 patients with positive cultures. The most prevalent bacteria in the 2008 study were Enterococcus species and Escherichia coli – 24.0 % and 26.4% respectively compared to 18.0% and 38.1% in the 1988 study, with the decrease in E. coli isolates being significant (P = 0.0003). In 2008 the antimicrobial sensitivity for various antibiotics ranged from 44.3% to 100.0% (median 90.2%) while in 1988 it ranged from 2.9% to 80.1% (median 51.9%).

Conclusions: The cervical bacterial flora in hospitalized women with PID did not vary significantly between 1988 and 2008. However, antimicrobial sensitivity of the isolated bacteria increased dramatically, probably due to a decrease in resistance to antibiotics.






[1] PID = pelvic inflammatory disease


September 2007
E. Israeli, B. Talis, N. Peled, R. Snier and J. El-On

Background: Serology of amebiasis is affected by low sensitivity and specificity.

Objectives: To evaluate the advantage of the indirect hemagglutination assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the diagnosis of amebiasis, using Entamoeba histolytica soluble antigen (macerated amebic antigens) prepared from four different virulent isolates, continuously cultivated in the presence of the original enteric bacteria.

Methods: Using IHA[1] and ELISA[2] with MAA[3] antigen we examined 147 sera samples from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, and 11 sera from amebiasis cases (confirmed by microscopy and copro-antigen ELISA ).

Results: Of 104 of the 147 (70.7%) symptomatic cases that were amebiasis positive by IHA, 81 (55.1%) were positive by MAA-ELISA. In addition, of 11 amebiasis cases confirmed by microscopy and copro-antigen ELISA , 7 (64%) were amebiasis positive by both tests. Four species of bacteria were isolated from the ameba cultures: Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus lactis. Elimination of the bacteria from the cultures by an antibiotics cocktail containing gentamicin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin was the preferred method. Absorption of patients' sera to bacterial antigen prior to serological analysis had only a marginal effect.

Conclusions: These results indicate a correlation of 61% between the ELISA developed in this study and the IHA tests in the diagnosis of amebiasis.






[1] IHA = indirect hemagglutination assay

[2] ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

[3] MAA = macerated amoebic antigens


January 2002
Suzan Abedat MSc, Simcha Urieli-Shoval PhD, Eli Shapira PhD, Sima Calko, Eldad Ben-Chetrit MD and Yaacov Matzner MD

Background: Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sporadic attacks of inflammation affecting the serosal spaces. The gene associated with FMF[1] (MEFV), mainly expressed in neutrophils, was recently found to be expressed also in primary cultures of serosal origin (peritoneal and synovial fibroblasts). A C5a inhibitor, previously detected in normal serosal fluids, was recently identified in serosal cultures as well, and was found to be deficient in serosal fluids and cultures obtained from FMF patients.

Objective: To investigate the effect of colchicine (the main therapeutic agent for FMF patients) and certain inflammatory cytokines (IL-1b, TNF-a, IFN-a, IFN-g) on MEFV expression and C5a inhibitor activity in neutrophils and primary peritoneal fibroblast cultures.

Methods: Human primary peritoneal fibroblast cultures and neutrophils were studied for MEFV expression and C5a inhibitor activity, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and C5a-induced myeloperoxidase assay, respectively, in the presence and absence of colchicine and cytokines.

Results: MEFV expression in neutrophils was high and could not be induced further. Its expression in the peritoneal fibroblasts was lower than in neutrophils and could be induced using colchicine and cytokines parallel with induction of C5a inhibitor activity. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR[2] assays enabled estimation of MEFV induction by the cytokines at 10–100-fold and could not be further increased by concomitant addition of colchicine.

Conclusion: Serosal tissues, which are afflicted in FMF, express colchicine and cytokine-inducible MEFV and contain inducible C5a inhibitor activity. The relation between colchicine ability to induce MEFV and C5a inhibitor activity, and its efficacy in FMF treatment, require further investigation.

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[1] RT-PCR = reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction

[2] FMF = familial Mediterranean fever

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