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עמוד בית
Fri, 01.03.24

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October 2021
Shay Brikman MD, Guy Dori MD PhD, Carmel Kasher MD, Anna Yanovskay MD, Merav Strauss PhD, Raul Colodner PhD, Naiel Bisharat MD, and Bibiana Chazan MD

Background: Patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are susceptible to superimposed infections.

Objectives: To describe COVID-19 patients who presented with complications due to Candida bloodstream co-infection (candidemia) and their outcome in a single center in northern Israel (Emek Medical Center) during the second outbreak of COVID-19 in Israel (15 June 2020 to 20 September 2020).

Methods: A retrospective study of COVID-19 patients presenting with candidemia was conducted, including clinical and laboratory data. The incidence of candidemia among hospitalized COVID-19 patients was compared to a historical cohort of non-COVID-19 controls.

Results: Three COVID-19 patients complicated with candidemia were documented. All three patients died shortly after the detection of candidemia. Three different Candida sp. were isolated from the blood cultures: C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata. The incidence of candidemia among COVID-19 patients was 0.679 episodes per 1000 hospital days.

Conclusions: Our small sample suggests a much higher incidence of candidemia among COVID-19 patients compared to a historical cohort of non-COVID-19 controls. All clinicians treating COVID-19 patients in GICU should be aware of this complication

February 2010
D. Bendayan, K. Littman and V. Polansky

Background: Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection among people infected with human immunodeficiency virus and its first cause of morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of a population in Israel with both tuberculosis disease and HIV[1] infection in order to identify factors that contribute to outcome.

Methods: The study group comprised patients hospitalized in the Pulmonary and Tuberculosis Department of Shmuel Harofeh Hospital during the period January 2000 to December 2006. They were located by a computer search in the hospital registry and the pertinent data were collected.

Results: During the study period 1059 cases of active tuberculosis disease were hospitalized; 93 of them were co-infected with HIV. Most of them came from endemic countries (61.2% from Ethiopia and 20.4% from the former Soviet Union; none of them was born in Israel). Ten percent of the cases were multiple-drug resistant and 32% showed extrapulmonary involvement. The response rate to the treatment was good, and the median hospitalization time was 70 days. The mortality rate was 3.2%.

Conclusions: Despite the high prevalence of pulmonary disease in our group, the short-term outcome was good and the Mycobacterium was highly sensitive to first-line drugs. These encouraging results can be attributed to the fact that tuberculosis patients in Israel are identified early and treated continuously and strictly, with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, which ensures that the development of drug resistance is low.






[1] HIV = human immunodeficiency virus


April 2004
A. Ya'ari, C.L. Jaffe and B-Z. Garty

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis was first reported in Israel (then Palestine) in 1929. In the 1960s and 1970s, it was endemic to northern Israel, but only partial data about the disease have been gathered since then.

Objective: To investigate the epidemiologic trends of visceral leishmaniasis in Israel from 1960 to 2000, and to delineate some clinical features of the infection.

Methods: Data were collected from hospital charts, scientific publications, and reports of the Ministry of Health and the Kuvin Center for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases.

Results: During the last four decades, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were diagnosed in Israel, 76 of them (87%) in children. All 54 patients diagnosed in the 1960s occurred in the northern part of the country. The rate of infection declined significantly in the 1970s (5 cases) and then increased slightly in the 1980s (11 cases) and 1990s (17 cases). More than 50% of the cases in the 1990s were in central Israel. Children accounted for 100% of cases in the 1960s but only 58% in the 1990s. The main clinical features of the patients diagnosed in the last decade were fever, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Three of the adults were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

Discussion: The decline in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the 1970s and the slight increase in the 1980s and 1990s can be attributed to changes in the animal reservoir and vectors, and in the immunity status of part of the population exposed to Leishmania.

Conclusions: Visceral leishmaniasis has reemerged in Israel. This mandates better control of the animal reservoir and vectors and increased awareness of this infection.

August 2003
M. Huerta, H. Castel, I. Grotto, O. Shpilberg, M. Alkan and I. Harman-Boehm

Background: We treated two patients diagnosed with legionellosis and simultaneous Rickettsia conorii co-infection.

Objectives: To report the clinical and laboratory characteristics of this unusual combination, and to describe the execution and results of our environmental and epidemiologic investigations.

Methods: Serial serologic testing was conducted 1, 4 and 7 weeks after initial presentation. Water samples from the patients’ residence were cultured for Legionella. Follow-up cultures were taken from identical points at 2 weeks and at 3 months after the initial survey.

Results: Both patients initially expressed a non-specific rise in anti-Legionella immunoglobulin M titers to multiple serotypes. By week 4 a definite pattern of specifically elevated IgG[1] titers became apparent, with patient 1 demonstrating a rise in specific anti-L. pneumophila 12 IgG titer, and patient 2 an identical response to L. jordanis. At 4 weeks both patients were positive for both IgM and IgG anti-R. conorii antibodies at a titer ³ 1:100. Heavy growth of Legionella was found in water sampled from the shower heads in the rooms of both patients. Indirect immunofluorescence of water cultures was positive for L. pneumophila 12 and for L. jordanis.

Conclusions: Although most cases of community-acquired Legionella pneumonia in our region appear simultaneously with at least one other causative agent, co-infection with R. conorii is unusual and has not been reported to date. This report illustrates the importance of cooperation between clinicians and public health practitioners.






[1] Ig = immunoglobulin


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