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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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January 2019
Sagee Tal MD, Yochai Adir MD, Nili Stein MPH, Hadar Shalom MSc, Orit Lache MSc, Andrew Levy MD, PhD and Michal Shteinberg MD

Background: Frequent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbators are at a higher risk of adverse health outcomes when compared to infrequent exacerbators. A COPD frequent exacerbator phenotype and its definition has been reported. Haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism has been associated with differing clinical outcomes in cardiovascular and renal disease. The Hp 2-2 phenotype has been found to have bacteriostatic properties, while the Hp 1-1 phenotype was found to be associated with infections.

Objectives: To determine the correlation in haptoglobin phenotypes and the frequent exacerbator status compared to COPD non-exacerbators.

Methods: Inclusion criteria included previous diagnosis of COPD and presence of at least two documented exacerbations of COPD in the previous 12 months (frequent exacerbator group) or absence of such exacerbations in the previous 24 months (non-exacerbator group). Descriptive data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test and the nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed.

Results: The multivariate logistic regression yielded a model in which haptoglobin phenotype did not have a statistically significant association with frequent exacerbator status. Smoking status was found to be negatively related with the frequent exacerbator status (odds ratio [OR] 0.240, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.068–0.843, P = 0.03). Number of pack-years was negatively related to being a frequent exacerbator (OR 0.979, 95%CI 0.962–0.996, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: We found no relationship between haptoglobin polymorphism and frequent exacerbator status. However, frequent exacerbator status had a statistically significant association with COPD Assessment Test scores and pack-years and a negative correlation with current smoking status.

January 2017
Gabriel Munter MD, Yehuda Brivik MD, Yossi Freier-Dror MA and Shoshana Zevin MD

Background: Cigarette smoking is a widespread problem around the world. In Israel, the prevalence of smoking is 23%. Smokers who are Orthodox abstain from smoking during the Sabbath, i.e., from sundown Friday to sundown Saturday, due to a religious prohibition. The prevalence of smoking among Orthodox men is 13%. However, there are no data on patterns of smoking or on the addiction profiles in this population.

Objectives: To explore the smoking patterns, motivation for smoking and nicotine addiction among Orthodox Jewish men, compared to non-Orthodox men, as well as the differences in the urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms on Saturday versus weekdays in the Orthodox group. 

Methods: The participants completed the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence, questionnaires on reasons for smoking and smoking patterns, as well as two brief questionnaires on the urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms after overnight abstinence on a weekday and after the end of the Sabbath. 

Results: Both groups were strongly addicted to nicotine and there were no differences in the reasons for smoking, withdrawal symptoms and nicotine craving after an overnight abstinence on weekdays. However, religious smokers had low levels of craving for nicotine and few withdrawal symptoms during Sabbath abstinence when compared to weekdays. 

Conclusions: Although we found no difference in the baseline characteristics with regard to nicotine addiction, smoking motivation, urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms between religious and non-religious groups, the former are able to abstain from smoking during 25 hours of the Sabbath every week with significantly fewer withdrawal symptoms compared to week days.

 

September 2016
Yoav Hammer MD, Eytan Cohen MD, Amos Levi MD and Ilan Krause MD

Background: Both cigarette smoking and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are linked to cardiovascular morbidity and development of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between cigarette smoking and renal function is not clearly understood. 

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and renal function, and determine whether the intensity of cigarette smoking influences renal function.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of subjects attending the screening center at the Rabin Medical Center. Subjects were classified as smokers, non-smokers and past smokers. Renal function was evaluated by means of the CKD-EPI equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Multivariate and gender-based analyses were performed.

Results: The study population comprised 24,081 participants, of whom 3958 (17%) were classified current smokers, and 20,123 non-smokers of whom 4523 were classified as past smokers. Current smokers presented a higher eGFR compared to the non-smoking group (100.8 vs. 98.7, P < 0.001) as well as higher rates of proteinuria (15.3% vs. 9.3%, P < 0.001). The difference in eGFR between smokers and non-smokers was more significant in males than in females. Past smokers had the lowest eGFR of all groups, this difference remained significant after age adjustments (P = 0.005). 

Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is associated with higher eGFR compared to non-smoking. This difference was more pronounced in males than females, implying a gender-based difference. The higher prevalence of proteinuria in smokers suggests a mechanism of hyperfiltration, which might result in future progressive renal damage.

 

June 2015
Orna Baron-Epel PHD, Waleed Shalata PHD and Melbourne F. Hovell PHD

Abstract:

Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is common in some populations and may add increased risk for tobaccorelated diseases.

Objectives: To assess the rates of WTS and risk practices associated with WTS in three distinct populations in Israel: long-term Jewish residents (LTJR), immigrants from the former Soviet Union (fSU), and Arabs.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 899 randomly selected participants, age 30–65 years, using face-toface interviews with subjects from the three population groups in Israel. Respondents reported WTS, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic characteristics.

Results: Among men, WTS at least once a week was reported by 4.8% of LTJR, 3.2% of fSU immigrants and 20.3% of Arabs. Lower rates were reported among women of all groups. The younger, less educated men and the younger unmarried women had higher odds of WTS. LTJR who smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol had higher odds of WTS [odds ratio (OR) 32.6, confidence interval (CI) 9.36–113.6; OR = 3.57, CI =1.48–8.63, respectively], compared to non-smokers and non-drinkers. fSU immigrants who smoked cigarettes had higher odds of WTS (OR = 3.40, CI = 0.99–11.7) compared to non-smokers. Among Arabs, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were not associated with WTS.

Conclusions: Arabs are more likely than other Israeli populations to engage in WTS. This behavior may add to increased inequalities in rates of tobacco-induced diseases between Arabs and Jews in Israel. Including WTS in the policies for smoke-free public places is called for.

December 2002
Yehonatan Sharabi MD, Idit Reshef-Haran MS, Moshe Burstein MD and Arieh Eldad MD

Background: Some studies have indicated a possible link between cigarette smoking and hearing loss.

Objectives: To analyze the association between smoking and hearing loss, other than that induced by noise, and to characterize the type of HL impairment found in smokers.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in 13,308 men aged 20±68 (median 34.6 years) who underwent a hearing test as part of a routine periodic examination. For each subject, age, smoking status (current, past or non-smokers) and number of cigarettes per day were noted and a hearing test was performed. The test was performed in a sealed, soundproof room by an experienced audiologist and included pure tone audiometry of 250±8,000 Hz. The audiograms were analyzed and subjects were accordingly divided into two groups: those with HL and at least one of the following impairments in at least one ear: sensorineural, conductive or mixed; and those with no hearing loss (control). Audiograms showing HL typical to noise exposure were excluded.

Results: The prevalence of any type of HL among subjects <35 years was 4.5%, compared to 10.5% among those >35 years (P < 0.0001). A significantly higher incidence of any type of HL was found in current (11.8%) and past smokers (11.7%) than in non-smokers (8.1%) (P < 0.0001). The risk increment of the smoking status for developing HL among subjects under age 35 was 43%, and 17% among those above 35 years. Both mild, flat, sensorineural impairment and conductive impairment were found to be associated particularly with smoking (odds ratio 2.2 and 1.9, respectively).

Conclusions: The incidence of HL unrelated to noise exposure is higher in smokers than in non-smokers, and in young adults the effect is greater.
 

July 2001
Boaz Meijer, MD, David Branski, MD and Eitan Keren, MD

Background: Prevention of cigarette smoking is an important issue in public health policy. Since most adult smokers began smoking in childhood, understanding behavor­ial factors associated with smoking initiation would contribute to smoking initiation programs. Health-related behavior may vary between different ethnic groups.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of smoking among Jewish and Arab adolescents in Jerusalem, and whether there are differences in smoking initiation between the two ethnic groups.

Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in the 6th to 11th grades (age range 11-17 years) of a Jewish school and an Arab school in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. A total of 791 questionnaires was analyzed, 479 from the Jewish students and 312 from the Arab students.

Results: The lowest prevalence of smoking was found among Arab female students and the highest among Jewish female students (9% vs. 41%, P<O.OO1). The prevalence of smoking among Jewish and Arab males was similar. More Arab female students smoked than their mothers. Peer pressure seemed to be a more important factor among Jewish students.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the presence of ethnic differences in smoking prevalence and the reasons for smoking among adolescents in Israel. These results suggest the need for specific smoking prevention policies for different ethnic groups.

December 2000
Menachem Moshkowitz, MD, Shlomo Brill, MD, Fred M. Konikoff, MD, Mordechai Averbuch, MD, Nadir Arber, MD and Zamir Halpern, MD
 Background: Cigarette smoking has long beenregarded as an important factor in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease.

Objective: To investigate whether cigarette smoking has an additive effect on the clinical presentation and course of disease in Helicobacter pylori-positive dyspeptic patients.

Patients and Methods: The study group comprised 596 consecutive H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients (334 males and 262 females, mean age 50.6, range 12--81 years). Following upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, patients were subdivided by diagnosis as follows: Non-ulcer patient group (n=312: gastritis 193, duodenitis 119), gastric ulcer (n=19), and duodenal ulcer (n=265). H. pylori infection was confirmed by histology and/or rapid urease test. In addition, 244 patients had a positive 14C-urea breath test prior to antimicrobial treatment. The patients' medical history and smoking habits were obtained using a detailed questionnaire completed by the patients and their referring physicians.

Results: There were 337 non-smoking patients, 148 current smokers and 111 past smokers. Gastric and duodenal ulcers were significantly less prevalent in non-smokers than in current or past smokers (gastric 1.8%, 4.1%, 6.3%; duodenal 39.8%, 50%, 51.4%, respectively) (P0.05). The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly lower in non-smokers than in current or past smokers (7.1%, 8.1% and 20.7%, respectively) (P0.05). Bacterial density, as assessed by the UBT value in 244 patients, was higher in non-smokers (mean 352.3273 units) than in past smokers (mean 320.8199) or current-smokers (mean 229.9162) (P0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender, current smoking, and immigration from developing countries were all significant independent risks for developing duodenal ulcer, while only past smoking was associated with a higher rate of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the past.

Conclusions: In H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients, current smoking as well as male gender and immigration from developing countries are associated with an increased risk for duodenal ulcer. This effect does not seem to be related to the bacterial density or increased urease activity of H. pylori organisms.

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