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עמוד בית
Tue, 23.04.24

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February 2023
Shir Schlosser BMedSc, Svetlana Zalmanov MD, Raphael M. Pfeffer MD, Yoav Lipski MD, Vladislav Grinberg MD, Yael Kalmus RN, Daphne Levin PhD, Keren Hod RD PhD, Merav A. Ben David MD

Background: Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASqCC) is a rare malignancy, traditionally treated with combined chemoradiation, with a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC). Replacing intravenous (IV) 5-FU with oral capecitabine (oral fluoropyrimidine) has been reported as a non-inferior treatment option. However, these data are scarce, with variable results.

Objectives: To examine the outcome of patients with ASqCC treated with either IV 5-FU or capecitabine concomitantly with radiation therapy. To compare treatment side effects, local recurrence, and general outcome.

Methods: We reviewed charts of patients who were diagnosed with stage I–III ASqCC. All participating patients received chemoradiation at the Assuta Medical Center between 2011 and 2019.

Results: In this study, 43 patients with ASqCC were eligible; 14 received 5-FU and 29 were treated with capecitabine. Basic characteristics were similar between the two groups, with longer follow-up for the 5-FU group. Six months following treatment, 100% (13/13 with adequate follow-up) of the 5-FU group had complete clinical response, compared to 84% in the capecitabine group (21/24), P = 0.143. The local recurrence incidence was higher in the 5-FU group at 23% (7, 10, 26 months following therapy, and none in the capecitabine group (P = 0.088). Although local and hematological toxicities were similar between groups, one patient receiving capecitabine died during chemoradiotherapy.

Conclusions: Oral capecitabine demonstrated non-inferior disease control in ASqCC treated with chemoradiotherapy. We recommend oral capecitabine over continuous IV 5-FU in locally and locally advanced ASqCC. Close monitoring of side effects is required to reduce major toxicity.

August 2022
Nir Tsur MD, Omri Frig BSc, Orna Steinberg-Shemer MD, Hannah Tamary MD, Noga Kurman MD, Aviram Mizrachi MD, and Aron Popovtzer MD

Background: Recent studies show a high risk of developing malignancy in patients with Fanconi anemia. The most common solid tumor in this condition is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and there is often uncertainty and about disease behavior as well as chemotherapy and radiation response.

Objectives: To describe and characterize HNSCC among Fanconi anemia patients on the Israeli Fanconi Registry

Methods: Our study population included patients in Israel's inherited bone marrow failure registry who were diagnosed with Fanconi anemia between1980 and 2016. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient charts.

Results: From the collected data, HNSCC was confirmed in 6/111 (5.4%) Fanconi anemia patients; 1 (17%) had classic HNSCC risk factors of tobacco abuse and 4 (56%) had undergone primary surgery. The 3 (50%) receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy had mild side effects, while half developed metachronous primary malignancy, and all developed > 2 primary malignancies. The overall median survival of the patients in our study was 14 (0.5–57) months.

Conclusions: Fanconi anemia patients have a very high risk of developing HNSCC. Proactive screening for malignancies is needed for the head and neck regions. We also found that chemoradiotherapy can be used safely in high-stage cancers.

December 2021
Myroslav Lutsyk MD, Konstantin Gourevich MD, and Zohar Keidar MD

Background: For locally advanced rectal cancer patients a watch-and-wait strategy is an acceptable treatment option in cases of complete tumor response. Clinicians need robust methods of patient selection after neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

Objectives: To predict pathologic complete response (pCR) using computer vision. To analyze radiomic wavelet transform to predict pCR.

Methods: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation for patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma who passed computed tomography (CT)-based simulation procedures were examined. Gross tumor volume was examind on the set of CT simulation images. The volume has been analyzed using radiomics software package with wavelets feature extraction module. Statistical analysis using descriptive statistics and logistic regression was performed was used. For prediction evaluation a multilayer perceptron algorithm and Random Forest model were used.

Results: In the study 140 patients with II–III stage cancer were included. After a long course of chemoradiation and further surgery the pathology examination showed pCR in 38 (27.1%) of the patients. CT-simulation images of tumor volume were extracted with 850 parameters (119,000 total features). Logistic regression showed high value of wavelet contribution to model. A multilayer perceptron model showed high predictive importance of wavelet. We applied random forest analysis for classifying the texture and predominant features of wavelet parameters. Importance was assigned to wavelets.

Conclusions: We evaluated the feasibility of using non-diagnostic CT images as a data source for texture analysis combined with wavelets feature analysis for predicting pCR in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. The model performance showed the importance of including wavelets features in radiomics analysis.

June 2005
I.L. Nudelman, V. Fuko, A. Geller, E. Fenig and S. Lelchuk
 Background: Abdominoperineal resection entails the need for a permanent colostomy, which significantly reduces patient self-image and quality of life.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of preoperative chemoradiation in increasing the resectability rates of rectal cancer and increasing the anal sphincter preservation rate.

Methods: The study group included 66 patients aged 33–84 years with T2–T3 rectal carcinoma who were treated in our institute from 1997 to 2002 with preoperative chemoradiation followed by surgery 6 weeks later. All patients underwent preoperative transrectal endoscopic ultrasound for tumor staging and localization. The duration of follow-up was 25 months.

Results: Chemoradiation led to tumor downstaging in 61 patients (92.4%), all of whom underwent low anterior resection. Only 11.4% of this group needed a temporary (6 weeks) loop colostomy/ileostomy. None of the 16 patients with post-treatment T0 tumors had evidence of malignant cells on pathologic study. Five patients (7.6%) failed to respond to chemoradiation and underwent APR[1]. There were no major complications, such as leakage, and no deaths.

Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation is an effective modality to downstage advanced rectal cancer, improving patient quality of life by significantly reducing the need for a terminal permanent colostomy, or even a temporary one.


 





[1] APR = abdominoperineal resection


October 2004
M.R. Pfeffer, Y. Kundel, M. Zehavi, R. Catane, M. Koller, O. Zmora, R. Elkayam and Z. Symon

Background: Preoperative radiotherapy is standard treatment for rectal cancer and is often combined with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. UFT, a new oral 5FU[1] derivative, given daily during a course of radiotherapy mimics the effect of continuous-infusion 5FU.

Objectives: To determine the maximum tolerated dose of oral UFT and leucovorin with preoperative pelvic irradiation for rectal cancer, and assess tumor response.

Methods: In this phase 1 trial, 16 patients aged 42–79 years with tumors within 12 cm of the anal verge received radiotherapy, 45 Gy over 5 weeks, an escalating dose of oral UFT, and a fixed dose of 30 mg/day leucovorin. UFT and leucovorin were given for 28 consecutive days concomitant with the first 4 weeks of radiotherapy. Surgery was scheduled for 4–6 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. The surgical procedure was determined by the surgeon at the time of surgery.

Results: No grade III toxicity was seen at 200 mg/m2/day UFT. Of eight patients who received 240 mg/m2/day UFT, one developed grade IV diarrhea; of four patients who received 270 mg/m2/day UFT, one was hospitalized with grade IV diarrhea and leukopenic fever and died during hospitalization. Of the 15 evaluable patients, 9 had pathologic tumor down-staging including 4 patients with complete response. Only one patient required a colostomy.
Conclusions: The MTD[2] of UFT together with leucovorin and preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer is 240 mg/m2. The major toxicity was diarrhea. Down-staging was noted in 60% of patients, allowing sphincter-preserving surgery even in patients with low tumors.







[1] 5FU = 5-fluorouracil

[2] MTD = maximum tolerated dose


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