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עמוד בית
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November 2022
Shada Azem MD, Roy Raphael MD, Shir Raibman-Spector MD, Kobi Faierstein MD, Amir Givon MD, Haim Mayan MD

Intravesicular administration of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG), a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, has long been used as adjuvant therapy for treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder carcinoma. BCG is usually well tolerated; however, infectious complications can range from 1–5% of cases. Infectious complications of BCG [1] can be divided into localized disease, which is considered a late onset disease occurring 3 months following treatment such as cystitis, Epididymo-orchitis, and pyelonephritis. Another form is a systemic disease, which is an early onset manifestation including sepsis syndrome that usually occurs directly after treatment and is the most common form of disseminated BCG infection.

December 2021
Benjamin Russell MD, Yoram Klein MD, Uri Rimon MD, Zehavit Kirshenboim MD, Nir Horesh MD, and Yaniv Zager MD
May 2020
Shira Goldman MD, Oranit Itshaki MD, Tzippy Shochat MSc, Anat Gafter-Gvili MD, Dafna Yahav MD, Bina Rubinovitch MD and Daniel Shepshelovich MD

Background: Recent data regarding polymicrobial bacteremia (PMB) are lacking.

Objectives: To characterize risk factors as well as clinical, microbiological, and prognostic patterns of patients with PMB in a modern hospital setting.

Methods: A single center retrospective study including all patients diagnosed with PMB during 2013 was conducted. PMB was defined as two or more organisms cultured from the blood of the same patient within 72 hours. Patients with monomicrobial infections served as controls.

Results: There were 135 episodes (2% of all bacteremia episodes) of true PMB among 123 patients during the study period. Recent invasive procedures (odds ratio [OR] 3.59, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.41–9.12, P = 0.006) and foreign bodies (OR 1.88, 95%CI 1.06–3.33, P = 0.04) were risk factors for PMB when compared with 79 patients with monomicrobial bacteremia. Central-line-associated infections were the most common infection source among patients with PMB (n=34, 28%). Enterobacteriaceae were the most commonly implicated pathogen (n=95, 77%). Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli were significantly more common than previously reported (n=55, 45%). Although crude 30-day mortality was higher (48% vs. 33%) in PMB patients, adjusted mortality was comparable in the two groups.

Conclusions: PMB rate in our cohort was considerably lower than in previous reports. Central-line-associated infections were more common than classic PMB sources. Mortality remained high. Strategies for early identification and better care for these patients should be pursued.

Michal Natan PhD, Gila Jacobi, Ehud Banin PhD and Shai Ashkenazi MD MSc

Background: Although indwelling catheters are increasingly used in modern medicine, they can be a source of microbial contamination and hard-to-treat biofilms, which jeopardize patient lives. At times 70% ethanol is used as a catheter-lock solution due to its bactericidal properties. However, high concentrations of ethanol can result in adverse effects and in malfunction of the catheters.

Objective: To determine whether low concentrations of ethanol can prevent and treat biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Methods: Ethanol was tested at a concentration range of 0.625–80% against laboratory and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa for various time periods (2–48 hours). The following parameters were evaluated following ethanol exposure: prevention of biofilm formation, reduction of biofilm metabolic activity, and inhibition of biofilm regrowth.

Results: Exposing P. aeruginosa to twofold ethanol gradients demonstrated a significant biofilm inhibition at concentrations as low as 2.5%. Treating pre-formed biofilms of P. aeruginosa with 20% ethanol for 4 hours caused a sharp decay in the metabolic activity of both the laboratory and clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. In addition, treating mature biofilms with 20% ethanol prevented the regrowth of bacteria encased within it.

Conclusions: Low ethanol concentrations (2.5%) can prevent in vitro biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Treatment of previously formed biofilms can be achieved using 20% ethanol, thereby keeping the catheters intact and avoiding complications that can result from high ethanol concentrations.

February 2012
U. Netz, Z. Perry, S. Libson and M. Bayme
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