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עמוד בית
Sat, 25.05.24

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June 2023
Jonathan D. Cohen MBBCh FCP (SA), Tomer Kaplan BEMS MPH, Tammy Fink RN, Kyrill Grozovsky RN, Refael Strugo MD, Ilya Kagan MD, Tamar Ashkenazi RN PhD

Background: A limited program for kidney donation from uncontrolled donation after cardiocirculatory determination of death (uDCDD) was implemented at four hospitals in Israel in close cooperation with Magen David Adom (MDA), the national emergency medical service.

Objectives: To assess the outcome of transplantations performed between January 2017 and June 2022.

Methods: Donor data included age, sex, and cause of death. Recipient data included age, sex, and yearly serum creatinine levels. A retrospective study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases treated by MDA during 2021 were analyzed to assess their compatibility as potential uDCDD donors.

Results: In total, 49 potential donors were referred to hospitals by MDA. Consent was obtained in 40 cases (83%), organ retrieval was performed in 28 cases, and 40 kidneys were transplanted from 21 donors (75% retrieval rate). At 1-year follow-up, 36 recipients had a functioning graft (4 returned to dialysis) and mean serum creatinine 1.59 ± 0.92 mg% (90% graft survival). Outcome after transplantation showed serum creatinine levels (mg%) at 2 years 1.41 ± 0.83, n=26; 3 years 1.48 ± 0.99, n=16; 4 years 1.07 ± 1.06, n=7; and 5 years 1.12 ± 0.31, n=5. One patient died of multiple myeloma at 3 years. The MDA audit revealed an unutilized pool of 125 potential cases, 90 of whom were transported to hospitals and 35 were declared dead at the scene.

Conclusions: Transplant outcomes were encouraging, suggesting that more intensive implementation of the program may increase the number of kidneys transplanted, thus shortening recipient waiting lists.

May 2021
Alexander Feldman MD, Nahum A. Freedberg MD, Dante Antonelli MD, Ehoud Rozner MD, and Yoav Turgeman MD

Background: Patients admitted to the hospital after successful resuscitation from sudden cardiac death (SCD) are treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) to facilitate brain preservation. The prognostic significance of J (Osborn) waves (JOW) in the 12 leads electrocardiogram in this setting has not been elucidated as yet.

Objectives: To ascertain retrospectively the prognostic significance of JOW recorded during TH in SCD survivors.

Methods: The study comprised 55 consecutive patients who underwent TH. All patients achieved a core temperature of 33°C at the time of electrocardiogram analysis. We compared 33 patients with JOW to 22 patients without JOW. The endpoints were in-hospital, long-term all-cause mortality, and irreversible anoxic brain injury (IABI).

Results: Patients with JOW compared to patients without JOW were younger (55.1 ± 11.6 vs. 64.5 ± 11.7 years, respectively, P < 0.006), with a lower incidence of hypertension (52% vs. 86%, P < 0.007), diabetes mellitus (15% vs. 50%, P < 0.005), and congestive heart failure (15% vs. 45%, P < 0.013). In-hospital and long-term mortality were significantly higher in patients without JOW (86% vs. 21%, 91% vs. 24%, respectively, P < 0.000001). Among patients without JOW who survived hospitalization, 66.7% presented with IABI versus 7.7% of the patients with JOW (P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, the absence of JOW was a significant predictor for poor prognosis.

Conclusions: The absence of J (Osborn) waves on electrocardiograms obtained during TH is associated with poor prognosis among SCD survivors

Sagi Gleitman MD MEM, Gabby Elbaz-Greener MD MHA, Offer Amir MD FACC, and Diab Ghanim MD
June 2020
Lisa D. Amir MD MPH

Background: Rapid response teams (RRT) reduce in-hospital mortality and cardiac arrests. There are only a few articles describing RRT activations outside of North America and Australia.

Objectives: To describe demographic and clinical variables of RRT activations using 13 years of data.

Methods: Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel is a pediatric hospital with the busiest pediatric emergency department in the country. We analyzed demographic and clinical data of RRT activation from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2018.

Results: During the study period there were 614 RRT activations with an average of 55.8 activations per year (range 43–76). RRT activations occurred most commonly for children aged 0–12 months (43%) as compared to children 1–5 years of age (25%), 6–10 years of age (12%), 11–18 years of age (18%), and adults (2%). The most common reason for activation was respiratory deterioration (45.8%) followed by neurologic alteration (21%), and cardiac arrest (18%). Following resuscitation, 47% of the patients were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and 12% were pronounced dead. Intubation was performed in 48.9% of activations, chest compressions in 20.5%, intraosseous line insertion in 9.4%, and defibrillation in 3.4%. Procedures were usually performed in the emergency department (ED).

Conclusions: We describe RRT including RRT activations in the ED. The high frequency of interventions should be utilized to direct staff training for the RRT and the ED. The lack of standardization of reporting data for RRT activations makes comparisons among hospitals difficult.

May 2018
Eran Leshem MD, Michael Rahkovich MD, Anna Mazo MD, Mahmoud Suleiman MD, Miri Blich MD, Avishag Laish-Farkash MD, Yuval Konstantino MD, Rami Fogelman MD, Boris Strasberg MD, Michael Geist MD, Israel Chetboun MD, Moshe Swissa MD, Michael Ilan MD, Aharon Glick MD, Yoav Michowitz MD, Raphael Rosso MD, Michael Glikson MD and Bernard Belhassen MD

Background: Limited information exists about detailed clinical characteristics and management of the small subset of Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients who had an arrhythmic event (AE).

Objectives: To conduct the first nationwide survey focused on BrS patients with documented AE.

Methods: Israeli electrophysiology units participated if they had treated BrS patients who had cardiac arrest (CA) (lethal/aborted; group 1) or experienced appropriate therapy for tachyarrhythmias after prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation (group 2).

Results: The cohort comprised 31 patients: 25 in group 1, 6 in group 2. Group 1: 96% male, mean CA age 38 years (range 13–84). Nine patients (36%) presented with arrhythmic storm and three had a lethal outcome; 17 (68%) had spontaneous type 1 Brugada electrocardiography (ECG). An electrophysiology study (EPS) was performed on 11 patients with inducible ventricular fibrillation (VF) in 10, which was prevented by quinidine in 9/10 patients. During follow-up (143 ± 119 months) eight patients experienced appropriate shocks, none while on quinidine. Group 2: all male, age 30–53 years; 4/6 patients had familial history of sudden death age < 50 years. Five patients had spontaneous type 1 Brugada ECG and four were asymptomatic at ICD implantation. EPS was performed in four patients with inducible VF in three. During long-term follow-up, five patients received ≥ 1 appropriate shocks, one had ATP for sustained VT (none taking quinidine). No AE recurred in patients subsequently treated with quinidine.

Conclusions: CA from BrS is apparently a rare occurrence on a national scale and no AE occurred in any patient treated with quinidine.

December 2017
Dante Antonelli MD, Ofir Koren MD, Menachem Nahir MD, Ehud Rozner MD, Nahum A. MD and Yoav Turgeman MD

Background: Survival of patients who were discharged from the hospital following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has not been well defined.

Objective: To verify predictor variables for prognosis of patients following OHCA who survived hospitalization.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical, demographic, and outcome data of consecutive patients who were hospitalized from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2014, into the intensive coronary care unit (ICCU) after aborted OHCA and discharged alive. The patients were followed until December 31, 2015.

Results: Of the 180 patients who were admitted into ICCU after OHCA, 64 were discharged alive (59.3%): 55 were male (85.9%), 14 died 16.5 ± 18 months after their discharge. During 1 year follow-up, nine patients (14.1%) died after a median period of 5.5 months and 55 patients (85.9 %) survived. Diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure (CRF) were more frequent in patients who died within 1 year after their hospital discharge than those who survived. Ventricular fibrillation, such as initial arrhythmia, and opening of occluded infarct related artery were more frequent in survivors.

Conclusions: Most of the patients who were discharged after OHCA were alive at the 1 year follow-up. The risk of death of cardiac arrest survivors is greatest during the first year after discharge. CRF remains a poor long-term prognostic factor beyond the patients' discharge. Ventricular fibrillation, as initial arrhythmia, and opening of occluded infarct related artery have a positive impact on long-term survival.

Jad Khatib MD, Naama Schwartz PhD and Naiel Bisharat MD PhD

Background: In 2006, the Israeli Ministry of Health distributed guidelines for improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge among hospital staff. The impact of these guidelines on survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is unclear.

Objectives: To compare rates of incidence and survival to discharge after IHCA, preceding and subsequent to issuance of the guidelines: 1995–2005 and 2006–2015.

Methods: Data were retrieved from the computerized records of patients who had an IHCA and underwent CPR. In addition, we retrieved data available from the hospital's resuscitation committee that included number, type, methods of training in CPR refresher courses, type and number of audits carried out during the past 10 years, and type of CPR quality assessments.

Results: From 1995 to 2015, IHCA incidence increased from 0.7 to 1.7 per 1000 admissions (P < 0.001), while survival rate did not increase (P = 0.37). Survival for shockable rhythms increased from 15.4 to 30.2% (P = 0.05) between the two time periods. The ratio of non-shockable to shockable rhythms increased from 2.4 to 4.6 (P = 0.01) between the two time periods.

Conclusions: Overall IHCA survival did not improve following the issuance of guidelines requiring CPR refresher courses, although survival improved for patients with initial shockable dysrhythmia. A decrease of events with initial shockable dysrhythmia, an increase with acute renal failure, and a decrease occurring in intensive care units contributed to understanding the findings. We found that CPR refresher courses were helpful, although an objective measure of their effectiveness is lacking.

 

September 2017
Sody A Naimer MD and Edward Fram MA MPhil PhD

Background: Maternal cardiac arrest during gestation constitutes a devastating event. Training and anticipant preparedness for prompt action in such cases may save the lives of both the woman and her fetus. 

Objectives: To address a previous Jewish guideline that a woman in advanced pregnancy should not undergo any medical procedure to save the fetus until her condition is stabilized. 

Methods: Current evidence on perimortal cesarean section shows that immediate section during resuscitation provides restoration of the integrity of the mother’s vascular compartment and increases her probability of survival. We analyzed Jewish scriptures from the Talmud and verdicts of the oral law and revealed that the Jewish ethical approach toward late gestational resuscitation was discouraged since it may jeopardize the mother. 

Results: We discuss the pertinent Jewish principles and their application in light of emerging scientific literature on this topic. An example case that led to an early perimortem cesarean delivery and brought about a gratifying, albeit only partially satisfying outcome, is presented, albeit with only a partially satisfying outcome. The arguments that were raised are relevant to such cases and suggest that previous judgments should be reconsidered.  

Conclusions: The Jewish perspective can guide medical personnel to modify and adapt the concrete rules to diverse clinical scenarios in light of current medical knowledge. With scientific data showing that both mother and fetus can prosper from immediate surgical extrication of the baby during resuscitation of the advanced pregnant woman, these morals should dictate training and practice in urgent perimortal cesarean sections whenever feasible. 

 

May 2017
Sa’ar Minha MD, Tali Taraboulos MD, Gabby Elbaz-Greener MD, Eran Kalmanovich MD, Zvi Vered MD and Alex Blatt MD MSc
January 2016
Philippe Biderman MD, Ilya Kagan MD, Zaza Jakobishvili MD, Michael Fainblut MD, Ynon Lishetzinsky MD and Jonathan Cohen MD
May 2011
April 2007
A. Laish-Farkash, S. Matetzky, S. Kassem, H. Haj-Iahia and H. Hod

Background: Unconscious adults with spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should be cooled to 32–34ºC (ILCOR recommendations, 2003) when the initial rhythm is ventricular fibrillation.

Objectives: To assess the technique, safety and efficacy of mild induced hypothermia in patients after OHCA[1] due to VF[2].

Methods: Patients were cooled using the MTRE CritiCoolÔ external cooling system. Cold intravenous fluids were added to achieve faster cooling in 17 patients. Data were collected prospectively and patients were analyzed according to their neurological outcome on discharge, defined by their cerebral performance category.

Results: From February 2002 to September 2006, 51 comatose VF patients with OHCA underwent MIH[3]. Treatment was discontinued early in five because of hemodynamic instability; goal temperature was reached in 98% and maintained for an average of 19.5 hours; 61% had a favorable outcome (CPC[4] 1–2) and 37% died. Improved outcome was observed with longer hypothermia time and possibly when time from collapse to return of spontaneous circulation was < 25 minutes.

Conclusions: MIH, using an external cooling system, is simple and feasible, reduces mortality and protects neurological function. Four major factors seem to influence outcome: age, co-morbidities, duration of hypothermia, and possibly the length of time from collapse to ROSC[5].






[1] OHCA = out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

[2] VF = ventricular fibrillation

[3] MIH = mild induced hyperthermia

[4] CPC = cerebral performance category

[5] ROSC = return of spontaneous circulation


E. Markusohn, A. Roguin, A. Sebbag, D. Aronson, R. Dragu, S. Amikam, M. Boulus, E. Grenadier, A. Kerner, E. Nikolsky, W. Markiewicz, H. Hammerman and M. Kapeliovich

Background: The decision to perform primary percutaneous coronary intervention in unconscious patients resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is challenging because of uncertainty regarding the prognosis of recovery of anoxic brain damage and difficulties in interpretation of ST segment deviations. In ST elevation myocardial infarction patients after OHCA[1], primary PCI[2] is generally considered the only option for reperfusion. There are few published studies and no randomized trial has yet been performed in this specific group of patients.

Objectives: To define the demographic, clinical and angiographic characteristics, and the prognosis of STEMI[3] patients undergoing primary PCI after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records and used the prospectively acquired information from the Rambam Primary Angioplasty Registry (PARR) and the Rambam Intensive Cardiac Care (RICCa) databases.

Results: During the period March1998 to June 2006, 25 STEMI patients (21 men and 4 women, mean age 56 ± 11years) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were treated with primary PCI. The location of myocardial infarction was anterior in 13 patients (52%) and non-anterior in 12 (48%). Cardiac arrest was witnessed in 23 patients (92%), but bystander resuscitation was performed in only 2 patients (8%). Eighteen patients (72%) were unconscious on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale > 5 was noted in 2 patients (8%). Cardiogenic shock on admission was diagnosed in 4 patients (16%). PCI procedure was successful in 22 patients (88%). In-hospital, 30 day, 6 month and 1 year survival was 76%, 76%, 76% and 72%, respectively. In-hospital, 30 day, 6 month and 1 year survival without severe neurological disability was 68%, 68%, 68% and 64%, respectively.

Conclusions: In a selected group of STEMI patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, primary PCI can be performed with a high success rate and provides reasonably good results in terms of short and longer term survival.

 







[1] OHCA = out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

[2] PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention

[3] STEMI = ST elevation myocardial infarction


September 2005
E. Kaluski, N. Uriel, O. Milo and G. Cotter
 Although 40 years have passed since the advent of advanced cardiac life support, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest still carries an ultimate failure rate of 95%. This review reinforces the importance of public education, optimization of the local chain of survival, early bystander access and bystander basic life support, and early defibrillation. It emphasizes the role of simplified basic life support algorithms and demonstrates the low incremental benefit of complex skillful protocols employed in ACLS[1]. The impact of automatic external defibrillators and new medications incorporated into ACLS algorithms is evaluated in the light of contemporary research. The persistent, discouraging, low functional survival rate (less than 5% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims) mandates reassessment of current strategies and guidelines.

_________________

[1] ACLS = advanced cardiac life support

 
April 2003
R. Ben-Abraham, E. Hadad, A.A. Weinbroum, O. Efrat and G. Paret

Vasopressin is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor that increases blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. The administration of exogenous vasopressin during closed and open cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans was shown to be more effective than optimal doses of epinephrine in several clinical studies. We summarize here the recent experimental and clinical data on the use of vasopressin in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and septic shock. As the use of vasopressin in human resuscitation is now in its early stages, it is expected that accumulated future experience will shed more light regarding the risk-benefit aspects of its use.

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