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עמוד בית
Sun, 26.05.24

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June 2023
Genya Aharon-Hananel MD PhD, Galia Zacay MD, Noam Tau MD, Yael Levy-Shraga MD, Amit Tirosh MD, Iris Vered MD, Liana Tripto-Shkolnik MD

Background: Trabecular bone score (TBS) reflects vertebrae microarchitecture and assists in fracture risk assessment. The International Society of Clinical Densitometry postulates that the role of TBS in monitoring antiresorptive therapy is unclear. Whether changes in TBS correlate with bone resorption measured by bone turnover markers is not known.

Objectives: To determine whether longitudinal changes in TBS correlate with C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) of type I collagen.

Methods: Examinees with two bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were detected via the institutional database. Over 5.8% change in TBS was considered least significant and patients were grouped accordingly (increment, decrement, or unchanged). CTX, BMD, co-morbidities, incident fractures, and medication exposure were compared between the groups by Kruskal-Wallis. The correlation between TBS and BMD change and CTX in a continuous model was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient.

Results: In total, 110 patients had detailed medical records. In 74.5%, TBS change was below least significant change. Two other TBS categories, fracture incidence or medication exposure, did not differ by CTX. In the continuous model, BMD and TBS change was positively correlated (r = 0.225, P = 0.018). A negative correlation was observed between BMD change and CTX. The decrease in BMD level was associated with higher CTX (r = -0.335, P = 0.004). No correlation was observed between CTX and TBS.

Conclusions: No correlation between TBS dynamics and bone resorption marker was found. Clinical interpretation and implication of longitudinal TBS changes should be further explored.

April 2018
Mahmoud Abu–Shakra MD, Devy Zisman MD, Alexandra Balbir-Gurman MD, Howard Amital MD, Yair Levy MD, Pnina Langevitz MD, Moshe Tishler MD, Yair Molad MD, Suhail Aamar MD, Itzhak Roser MD, Nina Avshovich MD, Daphna Paran MD, Tatiana Reitblat MD, Reuven Mader MD, Hillel Savin MD, Joshua Friedman MD, Nicky Lieberman MD and Sharon Ehrlich MD

Background: Chronic fatigue is common among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), affecting quality of life. Osteoporosis is a prevalent co-morbidity in RA patients.

Objectives: To assess the effect of long-term treatment with tocilizumab on fatigue and bone mineral density (BMD) in RA patients with inadequate response to synthetic or biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. 

Methods: In this multicenter, open-label, non-controlled, single-arm study, patients ≥ 18 years of age received intravenous tocilizumab 8 mg/kg every 4 weeks for 96 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-Fatigue score from baseline to weeks 24, 48, 72, and 96. BMD was assessed before and 96 weeks after treatment. 

Results: The study comprised 145 patients (mean age 53.4 ± 13.4 years, 83.4% women). Of these, 88 (60.7%) completed the 2 year treatment period. The mean FACIT-Fatigue score improved consistently starting from week 4 and showed a statistically significant increase of 5.0 ± 9.7, 6.8 ± 10.5, 7.3 ± 10.9, and 7.3 ± 10.4 from baseline to weeks 24, 48, 72, and 96, respectively (P < 0.0001). Mean BMD of femoral neck and total spine remained stable. Disease activity, acute phase reactants, and composite efficacy measures decreased during the study, while hemoglobin levels increased. Adverse events and serious adverse events were as expected for the known and previously described data.

Conclusions: Tocilizumab therapy for 2 years significantly and clinically decreased fatigue. BMD remained stable and no new safety issue was reported. 

 

August 2009
M. García-Carrasco, C. Mendoza-Pinto, R.O. Escárcega, M. Jiménez-Hernández, I. Etchegaray Morales, P. Munguía Realpozo, J. Rebollo-Vázquez, E. Soto-Vega, M. Delezé and R. Cervera

In recent years the survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus has increased markedly. Consequently, long-term complications, such as osteoporosis, are currently of paramount importance. SLE[1] is known to increase the risk of bone fractures, and numerous studies have found that SLE patients have osteoporosis. Of the various risk factors associated with osteoporosis in SLE, disease duration, the use of corticosteroids and chronic disease-related damage are consistently reported, with differences between studies probably due to the different populations studied. The role of chronic inflammation in osteoporosis is also important. On the other hand, little attention has been paid to osteoporotic fractures, especially of the vertebra, which are associated with reduced quality of life, increased mortality rates and increased risk of new vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in the general population.






[1] SLE = systemic lupus erythematosus



 
July 2003
C. Hartman, Z. Hochberg and R. Shamir
June 2003
D. Lev, I. Binson, A.J.H. Foldes, N. Waternberg and T. Lerman-Sagie

Background: The osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe juvenile-onset osteoporosis and congenital or early-onset blindness. Other manifestations include muscular hypotonia, ligamentous laxity, mild mental retardation and seizures. The gene responsible was recently identified to be the low density lipoprotein receptor-related family member LRP5 on chromosome 11q11-12.

Objective: To measure bone density in two siblings with the OPPG[1] syndrome as well as in their family members (parents and siblings).

Methods: Bone mineral density was determined in the lumbar spine (antero-posterior), femoral neck, two-thirds distal forearm (>95% cortical bone) and ultradistal forearm (predominantly trabecular bone) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Results: The studies revealed osteoporotic changes both in the patients and the carriers.

Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that OPPG carriers have reduced bone mass, which is a risk factor for development of early osteoporotic changes.

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[1] OPPG = osteoporosis-pseudoglioma


May 2002
Michael Eckstein, MSc, Iris Vered, MD, Sophia Ish-Shalom, MD, Anat Ben Shlomo, MD, Avraham Shtriker, MD, Nira Koren-Morag, PhD and Eitan Friedman, MD, PhD

Background: Genetic factors have been shown to play a major role in the development of peak bone mass, with hereditability accounting for about 50-85% of the variance in bone mass. Numerous candidate genes were proposed to be involved in osteoporosis, but the precise genes and their relative contribution remain unknown.

Objectives: To gain insight into the genetic basis of idiopathic low bone mineral density in Israeli patients by analyzing the impact of two candidate genes: polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor gene and polymorphism A986s in the calcium-sensing receptor gene.

Methods: We analyzed 86 Jewish Israeli patients with LBMD[1]: 38 premenopausal women and 48 men, and compared the allelic pattern distribution with that of the general population (126 men and 112 women). Genotyping of the VDR[2] gene was performed in three polymorphic sites using restriction enzymes, and allelic analysis of A986s polymorphism in the CaSR[3] gene was performed using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique.  

Reaults: In LBMD women the distributions of VDR alleres in Apal polymorphism were AA=7/28, Aa=16/28 and aa=5/28; in TaqI polymorphism TT=10/31, Tt=16/31 and tt=5/31; and in BsmI polymorphism BB=7/32, Bb=14/32 and 11/32. In LBMD men the distributions were AA=17/39, Aa=21/39 and aa=1/39; in TaqI polymorphism TT=12/42, Tt=23/42 and tt=7/42; and in BsmI polymorphism BB=12/41 Bb=18/41 and bb=11/41. The distributions of all these polymorphisms in the control groups were not significantly different. Adjusting for the independent age and gender parameters confirmed that these three polymorphisms of the VDR gene did not have a significant effect on bone mineral density. Thirty percent (24/79) of LBMD patients of either sex displayed heterozygosity of the CaSR A986s polymorphism, compared with 40 of 203 controls (19.7%) (P=0.059). Adjusting for age and gender in these patients revealed a significant difference in the femoral neck BMD[4] between homozygotes and heterozygotes (P=0.002). The age at menarche of the LBMD women was found to predict 61% of the variance of femoral neck BMD.

Conclusions: In Israeli Jewish men and premenopausal women VDR gene alleles do not seem to be associated with lower lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD. A trend towards heterozygosity for a CaSR polymorphism missense mutation was noted in the LBMD patients. Age at menarche in the LBMD women was found to be an important predictor of BMD. A significant difference was found between LBMD women and healthy control women towards heterozygosity for a CaSR polymorphism, as well between homozygotes and heterozygotes for a CaSR polymorphism in BMD. The significance of these findings and their applicability to a larger population awaits further studies.

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[1] LBMD = low bone mineral density


[2] VDR = vitamin D receptor


[3] CaSR = calcium-sensing receptor


[4] BMD = bone mineral density




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