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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.07.24

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July 2010
D.S. Seidman, A. Yeshaya, A. Ber, I. Amodai, I. Feinstein, I. Finkel, N. Gordon, N. Porat, D. Samuel, E. Shiran-Makler and I. Wolman

Background: Continuous use of combined oral contraceptives is currently attracting growing interest as a means of improving menstrual related symptoms and reducing the number of bleeding days.

Objectives: To evaluate bleeding patterns, menstrual symptoms and quality of life with an extended 84/7 oral contraceptive regimen versus 21/7 cycles.

Methods: In two consecutive run-in cycles, 30 µg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg drospirenone tablets taken on days 1–21 were followed by a tablet-free period from days 22 to 28 of each cycle and then by two 84 day cycles of pill use with a 7 day tablet-free interval. The primary outcome was the total number of bleeding/spotting days. Secondary outcomes were severity of daily symptoms, general well-being determined by the PGWBI questionnaire, and overall treatment satisfaction.

Results: Of the 137 women invited to participate in the study 109 (aged 18–40 years) were enrolled. The number of bleeding days decreased by about one-third from a calculated 31.8 days of bleeding under a cyclic 21/7 regimen to an expected total of 21.8 days for the extended 84/7 regimen. The incidence of menorrhagia, intermenstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea, abdominal bloating, breast tenderness, depressive moods and irritability – when compared at enrollment and at the end of the second extended study period – was significantly lower (P < 0.005) among women on the continuous pill regimen. The median (range) global PGWBI scores were not substantially different before and after the extended use cycles: 78.2 (39.1–96.4) and 77.3 (30.9–96.4), respectively. Body weight and skin condition also remained constant. At the completion of the study: 65.5% of the women were either highly satisfied (41.4%) or satisfied (24.1%) with the extended regimen.

Conclusions: The extended 84/7 regimen was found to be satisfactory for the majority of participants and was associated with a decrease in the number of bleeding days and an improvement in menstrual symptoms compared to 21/7 cycles.




June 2008
D. Boltin, V. Boguslavski, Y Goor and Ori Elkayam
April 2008
Z. Fireman and Y. Kopelman

Capsule endoscopy was launched at the beginning of this millennium and has since become a well‑established tool for evaluating the entire small bowel for manifold pathologies. CE[1] far exceeded our early expectations by providing us with a tool to establish the correct diagnosis for such elusive gastrointestinal conditions as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, polyposis syndrome and others. Recent evidence has shown CE to be superior to other imaging modalities – such as small bowel follow‑through X-ray, colonoscopy with ileoscopy, computerized tomographic enterography, magnetic resonance enteroclysis and push enteroscopy – for diagnosing small bowel pathologies. Since the emergence of CE, more than 500,000 capsules have been swallowed worldwide, and more than 700 peer-reviewed publications have appeared in the literature. This review summarizes the essential data that emerged from these studies.

[1] CE = capsule endoscopy

June 2007
A. Szalat, G. Erez, E. Leitersdorf

Background: The management of aspirin therapy before an invasive procedure poses a frequent clinical dilemma due to uncertainty regarding b[AS1] leeding versus thromboembolic risks associated with continuation or withdrawal of the drug. There is no evidence-based data to refer to.

Objectives: To assess the opinions of internal medicine physicians regarding aspirin therapy prior to an invasive procedure.

Methods: A questionnaire presenting nine hypothetical cases with different combinations of bleeding and thromboembolic risk was given to physicians in an Internal Medicine Division during a personal interview. For each case the participants had to choose between withdrawal of aspirin prior to an invasive procedure, continuation of aspirin, or substitution of low molecular weight heparin for aspirin. Results: Sixty-one physicians participated in the survey. For a patient with low thromboembolic risk, 77% (95% confidence interval 65.3–86.3%), 95% (87.2–98.7%) and 97% (89.6–99.5%) of physicians elected to discontinue aspirin prior to a low, intermediate or high bleeding risk procedure, respectively. For intermediate risk patients, 23% (95% CI[1] 13.7–34.7%), 59% (46.4–70.8%) and 74% (61.7–83.6%) would discontinue aspirin prior to a low, intermediate or high risk procedure, and 5% (95% CI 1.3–12.8%), 23% (13.7–34.7%) and 18% (9.9–29.2%) would substitute LMWH[2] for aspirin. For a patient with high thromboembolic risk, 1.6% (95% CI 0.08–7.8%), 11.5% (5.2–21.4%) and 18% (9.9–29.2%) recommended discontinuing aspirin prior to a low, intermediate or high risk procedure, respectively. In these situations, 18% (95% CI 9.9–29.2%), 53% (40.0–64.7%) and 57% (44.8–69.3%), respectively, would substitute LMWH for aspirin.

Conclusions: The results of the current investigation may help practicing physicians to decide whether to discontinue aspirin therapy prior to invasive procedures. The possible use of LMWH to replace aspirin as suggested here should be further evaluated in a controlled clinical study.



[2] LMWH = low molecular weight heparin

 [AS1]Is it the appropriate syntax ?

September 2005
June 2005
J. Ben Chaim, P.M. Livne, J. Binyamini, B. Hardak, D. Ben-Meir and Y. Mor
 Background: In Israel, virtually all children undergo circumcision in the neonatal period. Traditionally, it is commonly performed by a “Mohel” (ritual circumciser) but lately there is an increasing tendency among the educated secular population to prefer a medical procedure performed by a physician and with local anesthetic injection.

Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of this procedure and to compare the complication rate following circumcisions performed by ritual circumcisers and by physicians.

Methods: In 2001, of the 19,478 males born in four major medical centers in Israel 66 had circumcision-related complications. All the children were circumcised in non‑medical settings within the community. The patients were medically evaluated either urgently due to immediate complications or electively in outpatient clinics later on. Upon the initial assessment a detailed questionnaire was filled to obtain data regarding the procedure, the performer and the subsequent complications.

Results: All the circumcisions were performed during the early neonatal life, usually on day 8 of life (according to Jewish law). In 55 cases (83%) it was part of a ritual ceremony conducted by a ritual circumciser (Mohel), while in 11 babies (17%) physicians were involved. Acute bleeding after circumcision was encountered in 16 cases (24%), which required suturing in 8. In addition, we found two cases of wound infection and one case of partial amputation of glans penis in which the circumcision was performed by a ritual circumciser. Among the late complications, the most common was excess of skin in 38 cases (57%); 5 children (7.5%) had penile torsion and 4 children (6%) had shortages of skin, phimosis and inclusion cyst. The overall estimated complication rate of circumcision was 0.34%.

Conclusions: Complications of circumcision are rare in Israel and in most cases are mild and correctable. There appears to be no significant difference in the type of complications between medical and ritual circumcisions.

December 2004
November 2004
August 2004
V. Pengo, C. Pegoraro and S. Iliceto

Classic anticoagulant drugs, such as heparin and warfarin, are very effective. Although in use for more than 50 years, they have some clinical drawbacks. Heparin, now better termed unfractionated heparin, can only be used intravenously and its laboratory control is complicated. Warfarin is orally administered, but its therapeutic window is very narrow and patients need repeated laboratory tests. Moreover, both drugs are non-specific, as they inhibit the coagulation cascade at several steps. Pharmaceutic research has developed new drugs, some of which are already on the market, such as fondaparinux, a pentasaccharide that can interact with antithrombin, thus inhibiting factor Xa. This pentasaccharide is part of the parent heparin molecule and can be chemically synthesized, with the advantage of avoiding extractive compounds. Fondaparinux has a half-life compatible with once-a-day administration; modification of its structure (idraparinux) has led to more stable binding with antithrombin and to an increase in its half-life to allow once-a-week administration. Alternatives to oral anticoagulants have been developed following the study of some compounds like hirudin, which directly binds thrombin and blocks its catalytic site. One of these molecules, ximelagatran, is in advanced clinical development. Ximelagatran is converted into its active form, melagatran, in the circulation, and thrombin activity can be blocked by oral administration twice daily. There is no need for laboratory control and phase II and phase III studies are encouraging. The next few years should bring great changes in the treatment of patients with thromboembolic disorders.

E. Soudry and M. Stein

The management of uncontrolled bleeding in trauma patients is difficult in the prehospital setting, especially when transfer time to a care facility is prolonged. The goal of treatment is to stabilize the patient until surgery can be performed. In modern practice, the major aspects of optimal patient stabilization are the timing and volume of resuscitation and the use of blood products. The main problems are the logistics of handling the blood products as well as achieving the appropriate endpoint or resuscitation, while balancing the need to maintain blood pressure with the need to avoid deleterious coagulopathy. This work reviews current therapeutic modalities for prehospital management of uncontrolled bleeding trauma patients, namely low volume resuscitation, packed red blood cells, hemoglobin solutions, perfluorocarbons, hypertonic saline solutions, and recombinant activated factor VII.

February 2004
J. Delgado, B. Delgardo, I. Sztarkier, A. Baer and E. Depsames
September 2002
Zvi Fireman, MD, Arkady Glukhovsky, PhD, Harold Jacob, MD, FACG, Alexandra Lavy, MD, Shlomo Lewkowicz, DSc and Eitan Scapa, MD
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