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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.07.24

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August 2011
A. Fattal-Valevski, H. Bassan, J. Bernheim, B. Redianu, Y. Leitner and S. Harel

Background: Epidemiological studies have found that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is closely related to hypertension and is associated with a reduced number of nephrons that may be a predisposing factor for the development of hypertension.

Objectives: To determine whether blood pressure levels of children with a history of IUGR are higher than those of children without IUGR.

Methods: Diastolic, systolic and mean arterial blood pressure levels were measured in 64 children aged 8–12 years old with a history of IUGR (mean birth weight 1780
± 422 g) and compared with 64 age and gender-matched controls who had a normal birth weight (mean 3134 ±  594 g).

Results: Contrary to previous reports, systolic blood pressure values were significantly lower in the IUGR group compared to the controls (91.6
±11.3 vs. 96.6 ±13.9, P = 0.027). There was no difference in diastolic blood pressure values. In the IUGR group, systolic blood pressure correlated significantly with current weight (P < 0.01) and body mass index (P < 0.05), and diastolic blood pressure with weight gain between age 2 and 4 years (P < 0.05). None of the blood pressure values correlated with birth weight.

Conclusions: Children born with IUGR have lower systolic blood pressure levels than matched controls at age 8–12 years. These data indicate that postnatal weight gain in this group has a greater impact on systolic blood pressure than birth weight.
 

May 2010
R. Stackievicz, H. Paran, J. Bernheim, M. Shapira, N. Weisenberg, T. Kaufman, E. Klein and M. Gutman

Background: The prognostic significance of biologic markers in women with ductal carcinoma in situ is not fully understood. HER2/neu is a marker of prognostic significance that is routinely assessed in invasive cancer but its correlation with clinical outcome in DCIS[1] is still obscure.

Objectives:
To evaluate the significance of HER-2/neu expression as a prognostic marker in DCIS.

Methods:
Clinical and pathologic data from 84 patients treated for DCIS were analyzed. HER-2/neu expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Histopathologic parameters (nuclear grade, histologic subtype, necrosis, calcifications, margins) were reviewed by an experienced pathologist. Local recurrence and/or metastatic spread were used as endpoints to determine the prognostic significance of HER-2/neu expression.

Results:
With a median follow-up of 94.8 months, nine recurrences were reported. Neither univariate nor multivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between HER-2/neu expression and disease recurrence or the time to disease recurrence. Although HER-2/neu expression demonstrated a significant association with high nuclear grade (P < 0.0001) and comedo subtype (P < 0.0001), there was no correlation between these histologic features and recurrence rate. The correlation between high nuclear grade and disease recurrence approached statistical significance (P = 0.07).

Conclusions: No significant association was found between HER-2/neu expression in DCIS and disease recurrence. However, HER-2/neu correlated with negative markers such as nuclear grading and comedo necrosis, and its role should therefore be investigated in larger studies.

 

[1] DCIS = ductal carcinoma in situ

 

January 2007
S. Benchertrit, S. Yarkoni, M. Rathaus, M. Pines, G. Rashid, J. Bernheim, J. Bernheim

Background: Halofuginone is a novel antifibrotic agent that can reserve the fibrotic process by specific inhibition of collagen type I synthesis.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Halo on the development of glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in the 5/ 6 nephrectomy rat model.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were assigned to undergo 5/6 NX or sham operation, and then divided into three groups: 5/6 NX rats (NX-Halo and NX-Control) and sham. Systolic blood pressure proteinuria and body weight were determined every 2 weeks. At sacrifice (10 weeks) creatinine clearance was evaluated and remnant kidneys removed for histologic examination, Sirius red staining and in situ hybridization.

Results: Systolic blood pressure increased progressively in both 5/6 NX groups. Halo slowed the increase in proteinuria in 5/6 NX rats. As expected, creatinine clearance was lower in 5/6 NX groups when compared to sham rats. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher in the NX-Halo group at the end of the study period. Histologic examination by light microscopy showed significantly less severe interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis in Halo-treated rats. The increase in collagen α1 (I) gene expression and collagen staining after nephrectomy was almost completely abolished by Halo.

Conclusions: Halofuginone reduced proteinuria as well as the severity of interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis in 5/6 NX rats. The renal beneficial effect of Halo was also demonstrated by the blunted decrease in creatinine clearance observed in the treated animals.  
 

January 2006
G. Rashid, Z.Korzets and J. Bernheim

Background: Advanced glycation end products, formed by the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins with reducing sugars, are thought to play a pathogenetic role in the vascular complications of diabetes, uremia and atherosclerosis. β2-microglobulin is a major constituent of amyloid fibrils in dialysis-related amyloidosis. AGE[1]-modified β2m[2] has been found in amyloid deposits of long-term hemodialysis patients. AGE-modified β2m has also been shown to enhance chemotaxis and increase tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion by circulating and tissue monocytes/macrophages.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of AGE-modified β2m and AGE-human serum albumin on TNF-α[3] and IL-1β[4] secretion by human peritoneal macrophages derived from patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

Methods: Human PMØ[5] were isolated from peritoneal dialysis effluent of stable CAPD[6] patients and were incubated for 24 hours with AGE-modified β2m, β2m, AGE-HSA[7], HSA or lipopolysaccharide. TNF-α or IL-1β secretion was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cell-free culture supernatants.

Results: Both AGE-modified β2m and AGE-HSA significantly increased TNF-α and IL-1β secretion by human PMØ in a dose-dependent manner (50–200 μg/ml). In contrast, β2m or HSA had no such stimulatory effect on TNF-α secretion but had a small significant increase in IL-1β secretion.

Conclusions: AGE-modified β2m promotes in vitro TNF-α and IL-1β secretion by human PMØ of CAPD patients. Activation of these macrophages by AGE-modified β2m may be a contributory factor to the morphologic changes and altered permeability of the peritoneal membrane in long-term CAPD. 






[1] AGE = advanced glycation end products

[2] β2m = β2-microglobulin

[3] TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-alpha

[4] IL-1β = interleukin-1 beta

[5] PMØ = peritoneal macrophages

[6] CAPD = continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

[7] HSA = human serum albumin


April 2005
October 2002
Ze'ev Korzets, MBBS, Eleanora Plotkin, MD, Jacques Bernheim, MD and Rivka Zissin, MD

Background: Acute renal infarction is an oft-missed diagnosis. As a result; its true incidence, although presumed to be low, is actually unknown. Surprisingly, the medical literature on the subject, other than anecdotal case reports, is scarce.

Objectives: To increase physician awareness of the diagnosis and to identify predictive clinical and laboratory features of the entity.

Method: Between 1 November 1997 and 31 October 2000, 11 cases of acute renal infarction in 10 patients were diagnosed in our center by contrast-enhanced computerized tomography. The medical charts of these patients were reviewed regarding risk factor, clinical presentation, possible predictive laboratory examinations, and out-come.

Results: During the 36 month observation period, the incidence of acute renal infarction was 0.007%. The mean age of the patients (5 men and 5 women) was 67.4 + 21.1 (range 30-87 years). In four cases the right and in five the left kidney was involved; in the other. two cases bilateral:involvement was seen. In 7/10 patients, an increased risk for thromboembolic events was found. Six had chronic atrial fibrillation and one had a combined activated protein C resistance and protein S deficiency, Three patients had suffered a previous thromboembolic event. Two cases were receiving anticoagulant therapy with an INR of 1.6 and 1.8, respectively. On admission, flank pain was recorded in 10/11, fever in 5 and nausea/vomiting in 4 cases. Hematuria was detected in urine reagent strips in all cases; Serum lactate dehydrogenase and white blood cell count were elevated in all cases (1,570 + 703 IU/L and 12,988 + 3,841/ l, respectively). In no case was the diagnosis of acute renal infarction  initially entertained. The working diagnoses were .renal colic in 2 pyelonephritis in 3, renal carcinoma, digitails intoxication, and suspected endocarditis in one patient each, and an acute abdomen in 3. Time from admission to definitive CT diagnosis ranged from 24 hours to 6 days; Three patients were treated with intravenous heparin and another with a combination of IV heparin and renal intra-arterial urokinase infusion with, in the latter case, no recovery of function of the affected kidney. With the exception of this one patient (with a contralateral contracted kidney) who required maintenance dialysis, in all other cases serum creatinine levels. remained unchanged or reverted to the baseline mean of 1.1 mg/dl (0.9-1.2).

Conclusions: Acute renal infarction is not as rare as previously assumed. The entity is often misdiagnosed. Unilateral flank pain in a patient with an increased risk for thromboembolism should raise the suspicion of renal infarction. In such a setting, hematuria, leuaocytosis and an elevated LDH level are strongly supportive of the diagnosis.

June 2002
Eliezer Golan, MD, Bruria Tal, PhD, Yossef Dror, PhD, Ze’ev Korzets, MBBS, Yaffa Vered, PhD, Eliyahu Weiss, MSc and Jacques Bernheim, MD

Background: Multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in the obese individual.

Objective: To evaluate the role of a decrease in sympathetically mediated thermogenesis and the effect of the correlation between the plasma leptin and daily urinary nitric oxide levels on obesity-related hypertension.

Methods: We evaluated three groups: 25 obese hypertensive patients (age 45.7±1.37 years, body mass index 34.2±1.35 kg/m2, systolic/diastolic blood pressure 155±2.9/105±1.3, mean arterial pressure 122±1.50 mmHg); 21 obese normotensive patients (age 39.6±1.72, BMI[1] 31.3±0.76, SBP/DBP[2] 124±2.1/85.4±1.8, MAP[3] 98.2±1.80); and 17 lean normotensive subjects (age 38.1±2.16, BMI 22.1±0.28, SBP/DBP 117±1.7/76.8±1.5, MAP 90.1±1.50). We determined basal resting metabolic rates, plasma insulin (radioimmunoassay), norepinephrine (high performance liquid chromatography) in all subjects. Thereafter, 14 obese hypertensives underwent a weight reduction diet. At weeks 6 (n=14) and 14 (n=10) of the diet the above determinations were repeated. Plasma leptin (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and UNOx[4] (spectrophotometry) were assayed in 17 obese hypertensives and 17 obese normotensives, and in 19 obese hypertensives versus 11 obese normotensives, respectively.

Results: Obese hypertensive patients had significantly higher basal RMR[5] and plasma NE[6] levels. Insulin levels were lower in the lean group, with no difference between the hypertensive and normotensive obese groups. At weeks 6 and 14, BMI was significantly lower, as were insulin and NE levels. RMR decreased to values of normotensive subjects. MAP normalized but remained significantly higher than that of obese normotensives. Leptin blood levels and the leptin/UNOx ratio were significantly higher in the obese hypertensive compared to the obese normotensive patients. Both these parameters were strongly correlated to BMI, MAP5, RMR, and plasma NE and insulin .Obese hypertensive patients excreted less urinary NO metabolites. A strong correlation was found between MAP and the leptin/UNOx ratio.  

Conclusions: A reduction of sympathetically mediated thermogenesis, as reflected by RMR, results in normalization of obesity-related hypertension. In contrast, insulin does not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with obesity. Increased leptin levels in conjunction with decreased NO production in the presence of enhanced sympathetic activity may contribute to blood pressure elevation in the obese.

_____________________

[1] BMI = body mass index

[2] SBP/DBP = systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure

[3] MAP = mean arterial pressure

[4] UNOx = urinary nitric oxide

[5] RMR – resting metabolic rate

[6] NE = norepinephrine

January 2002
Sydney Benchetrit MD, Jacques Bernheim MD and Eduardo Podjarny MD

Background: Primary aldosteronism is a common cause of non-renal secondary hypertension. A correct diagnosis results in curing the hypertension or targeting appropriate pharmacotherapy. In patients with low renin resistant hypertension (after treatment with three or more different anti-hypertensive drugs the blood pressure remains above 140/90 mmHg), screening for aldosteronism is mandatory.

Objectives: To demonstrate that normal blood levels of potassium in resistant hypertensive patients do not exclude the possible presence of hyperaldosteronism, and to suggest the use of the plasma aldosterone concentration (ng/dl)/plasma renin activity (ng/ml/hour) ratio in screening for hyperaldosteronism.

Methods: Blood tests, suppression and stimulation tests (2 L normal saline IV/4 hours and 20 mg furosemide IV for 60 minutes in a standing position) were systematically performed in 20 low renin normokalemic resistant hypertensive patients. None had renal disorders, known endocrine abnormalities or heart failure. They did not receive anti-hypertensive drugs affecting PAC[1] or PRA[2]. Basal PRA and PAC were measured twice: PAC after saline infusion and PAC/PRA after stimulation.

Results:. PAC/PRA above 50 was used to denote hyperaldosteronism. Serum K was 4 ± 0.07 mM/L, PAC 22.8 ± 1.8 ng/dl, PRA 0.13 ± 0.02 ng/ml/hour, PAC/PRA 190 ± 22 (above 100 in 17). After suppression PAC decreased from 25 ± 1.8 to 11 ± 1 ng/dl (normal <5 ng/dl). Stimulation did not affect PRA and PAC/PRA. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed normal adrenal glands in 15 patients. Spironolactone (116 ± 60 mg/day) normalized blood pressure in all patients; it was used as a single therapy in 8, and in association with only one anti-hypertensive drug in the remaining 12 patients. In one patient the treatment was discontinued due to the presence of hyperkalemia.

Conclusions: Low renin resistant hypertension associated with normokalemia may be due to hyperaldosteronism. Normal aldosterone levels in the basal condition do not exclude the possibility of hyperaldosteronism. Using a PAC/PRA ratio above 50 as a screening test can aid the physician in deciding when to perform dynamic tests, thus increasing the sensitivity of the diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism. CT scan is frequently normal. Targeted pharmacotherapy leads to a normalization of blood values.






[1] PAC = plasma aldosterone concentration

[2]
 PRA = plasma renin activity


November 2001
Aviva Fattal-Valevski, MD, Jacques Bernheim, MD, Yael Leitner, MD, Bela Redianu, RN, Haim Bassan, MD and Shaul Harel, MD

Background: Low birth weight has been shown to be strongly related to hypertension in adult life.

Objective: To determine whether blood pressure is higher in children with intruterine growth retardation than in control subjects.

Methods: Blood pressure was measured in 58 children aged 4-6 years with IUGR and in 58 age-matched controls. The control children, whose birth weight was appropriate for gestational age, were also matched for gestational age.

Results: The children with IUGR had significantly higher mean values of systolic (p<0.05) and diastolic blood pressures (p<0.05) and mean arterial pressure (p<0.05). Significant differences in blood pressure values were found between preterm IUGR (n=21) and preterm controls (p<0.05).

Conclusion: These data indicate that children with IUGR may be at higher risk of hypertension already in childhood.

May 2001
Sydney Ben-Chetrit, Vidal Barchilon, MD, Ze’ev. Korzets, MD, BS, Joelle Bernheim, MD and Jacques Bernheim, MD
April 2000
Ella Zeltzer MD, Jacques Bernheim MD, Ze’ev Korzets MB BSc,, Doron Zeeli PhD, Mauro Rathaus MD, Yoseph A. Mekori MD and Rami Hershkoviz MD

Background: Cell-mediated immunity is impaired in uremia. Cell-matrix interactions of immune cells such as CD4+T lymphocytes with extracellular matrix are an important requirement for an intact immune response. The adherence of CD4+T cells of healthy subjects (normal T cells) to ECM components is inhibited in the presence of uremic serum. Such decreased adhesive capacity is also found in T cells of dialysis patients. Various chemokines and cytokines affect the attachment of CD4+T cells to ECM.

Objective: To evaluate chemokine (MIP-1β and RANTES) and tumor necrosis factor α-induced adhesion of CD4+T cells to ECM in a uremic milieu.

Methods: We examined adhesion of normal CD4+T cells (resting and activated) to intact ECM in response to soluble or bound chemokines (MIP-1β and RANTES) and to TNF-α following incubation in uremic versus normal serum. Thereafter, we evaluated the adhesion of resting CD4+T cells from dialysis patients in a similar fashion and compared it to that obtained from a healthy control group.

Results: Addition of uremic serum diminished soluble and anchored chemokine-induced attachment of normal resting and activated CD4+T cells to ECM compared to a normal milieu (a peak response of 10–11% vs. 24–29% for soluble chemokines, P<0.001; 12–13% vs. 37–39% for bound chemokines on resting cells, P<0.01; and 18–20% vs. 45–47% for bound chemokines on activated cells, P<0.02). The same pattern of response was noted following stimulation with immobilized TNF-α (7 vs. 12% for resting cells, P<0.05; 17 vs. 51% for activated cells, P<0.01).  Adherence of dialysis patients’ cells to ECM following stimulation with both bound chemokines was reduced compared to control T cells (15–17% vs. 25–32%, P<0.0000). In contrast, adherence following stimulation by TNF-α was of equal magnitude.

Conclusions: Abnormal adhesive capacity of T lymphocytes to ECM in uremia may, in part, be related to a diminished response to MIP-1β, RANTES and TNF-α. However, whereas reduced adhesion to chemokines was present in both normal CD4+T cells in a uremic environment and in dialysis patients’ T cells, TNF-α-induced adhesion was found to be inhibited only in normal cells in a uremic milieu.

____________________________

ECM = extracellular matrix

TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-a

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