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עמוד בית
Fri, 24.05.24

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August 2018
Avi Porath MD MPH, Jonathan Eli Arbelle MD MHA, Naama Fund, Asaf Cohen and Morris Mosseri MD FESC

Background: The salutary effects of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well established. Although generally considered safe, statin therapy has been reported to contribute to induction of diabetes mellitus (DM).

Objectives: To assess the risk-benefit of statin therapy, prescribed for the prevention of CVD, in the development of DM.

Methods: In a population-based real-life study, the incidence of DM and CVD were assessed retrospectively among 265,414 subjects aged 40–70 years, 17.9% of whom were treated with statins. Outcomes were evaluated according to retrospectively determined baseline 10 year cardiovascular (CV) mortality risks as defined by the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation, statin dose-intensity regimen, and level of drug adherence.

Results: From 2010 to 2014, 5157 (1.9%) new cases of CVD and 11,637 (4.4%) of DM were observed. Low-intensity statin therapy with over 50% adherence was associated with increased DM incidence in patients at low or intermediate baseline CV risk, but not in patients at high CV risk. In patients at low CV risk, no CV protective benefit was obtained. The number needed to harm (NNH; incident DM) for low-intensity dose regimens with above 50% adherence was 40. In patients at intermediate and high CV risk, the number needed to treat was 125 and 29; NNH was 50 and 200, respectively.

Conclusions: Prescribing low-dose statins for primary prevention of CVD is beneficial in patients at high risk and may be detrimental in patients at low CV risk. In patients with intermediate CV risk, our data support current recommendations of individualizing treatment decisions.

August 2015
Jeffrey Shames MD MPH, Shimon Weitzman MD MPH, Yael Nechemya MD and Avi Porath MD MPH

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The risk factors for stroke overlap those for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a particularly strong risk factor and is common, particularly in the elderly. Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) has maintained a vascular registry of clinical information for over 100,000 members, among them patients with heart disease and stroke. 

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of stroke in MHS, and whether the association of AF and stroke, along with other risk factors, in the Maccabi population is similar to that in published studies.

Methods: Data on stroke and AF patients aged 45 and older were collected from the database for the year 2010, including age, previous transient ischemic attack (TIA), body mass index (BMI), prior myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes, hypertension, anticoagulation and dyslipidemia. A cross-sectional analysis was used to estimate stroke prevalence by AF status. A case-control analysis was also performed comparing a sample of stroke and non-stroke patients. This permitted estimation of the strength of associations for atrial fibrillation and various other combinations of risk factors with stroke. 

Results: Stroke prevalence ranged from 3.5 (females, age 45–54 years) to 74.1 (males, age 85+) per thousand in non-AF members, and from 29 (males, age 45–54) to 165 (males, age 85+) per thousand for patients with AF. AF patients had significantly more strokes than non-AF patients in all age groups. Stroke prevalence increased with age and was significantly higher in males. Multivariable analysis revealed that male gender, increasing age, AF, hypertension, diabetes, and history of TIA were highly significant risk factors for stroke. In addition, for males, dyslipidemia and prior MI were moderately strong risk factors. 

Conclusions: Analysis of the MHS vascular database yielded useful information on stroke prevalence and association of known risk factors with stroke, which is consistent with the epidemiological literature elsewhere. Further analysis of health fund data could potentially provide useful information in the future. 

 

September 2011
A.D. Heymann, R. Gross, H. Tabenkin, B. Porter and A. Porath

Background: A crucial part of controlling blood pressure is non-pharmaceutical treatment. However, only a few studies specifically address the question of hypertensive patients’ compliance with physicians’ recommendations for a healthy lifestyle.

Objectives: To explore factors associated with hypertensive patients’ compliance with lifestyle recommendations regarding physical activity, smoking cessation and proper diet.

Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis of a representative sample of 1125 hypertensive patients in Israel's two largest health funds. Data were collected in 20022003 by telephone interviews using structured questionnaires. The response rate was 77%. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted.

Results: About half of the hypertensive patients reported doing regular exercise and adhering to a special diet; 13% were smokers. About half reported receiving counseling on smoking cessation and diet and a third on physical exercise. A quarter reported receiving explanations regarding self-measurement of blood pressure and signs of deterioration. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients’ beliefs about hypertension management, their knowledge on hypertension and its management, and physician counseling on a healthy lifestyle and self-care, have an independent effect on compliance with recommended lifestyle behaviors.

Conclusions: The low counseling rates suggest that there may be a need to improve physicians’ counseling skills so that they will be more confident and effective in delivering this service to their patients. A model based on educating both physicians and patients may contribute to improving the care of hypertensive patients.
 

August 2010
R. Nevzorov, E. Shleyfer, A. Gourevitch, A. Jotkowitz, A. Porath and L. Barski
January 2009
H. Gilutz, L. Novack, P. Shvartzman, J. Zelingher, D.Y. Bonneh, Y. Henkin, M. Maislos, R. Peleg, Z. Liss, G. Rabinowitz, D. Vardy, D. Zahger, R. Ilia, N. Leibermann and A. Porath

Background: Dyslipidemia remains underdiagnosed and undertreated in patients with coronary artery disease. The Computer-based Clinical Decision Support System provides an opportunity to close these gaps.

Objectives: To study the impact of computerized intervention on secondary prevention of CAD[1].

Methods: The CDSS[2] was programmed to automatically detect patients with CAD and to evaluate the availability of an updated lipoprotein profile and treatment with lipid-lowering drugs. The program produced automatic computer-generated monitoring and treatment recommendations. Adjusted primary clinics were randomly assigned to intervention (n=56) or standard care arms (n=56). Reminders were mailed to the primary medical teams in the intervention arm every 4 months updating them with current lipid levels and recommendations for further treatment. Compliance and lipid levels were monitored. The study group comprised all patients with CAD who were alive at least 3 months after hospitalization.

Results: Follow-up was available for 7448 patients with CAD (median 19.8 months, range 6–36 months). Overall, 51.7% of patients were adequately screened, and 55.7% of patients were compliant with treatment recommended to lower lipid level. A significant decrease in low density lipoprotein levels was observed in both arms, but was more pronounced in the intervention arm: 121.9 ± 34.2 vs. 124.3 ± 34.6 mg/dl (P < 0.02). A significantly lower rate of cardiac rehospitalizations was documented in patients who were adequately treated with lipid-lowering drugs, 37% vs. 40.9% (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: This initial assessment of our data represent a real-world snapshot where physicians and CAD patients often do not adhere to clinical guidelines, presenting a major obstacle to implementing effective secondary prevention. Our automatic computerized reminders system substantially facilitates adherence to guidelines and supports wide-range implementation.






[1] CAD = coronary artery disease



[2] CDSS = clinical decision support system


September 2008
L. Barski, S. Horowitz, E. Rabaev, A. Sidi, A. Porath and A. B Jotkowitz
May 2008
L. Barski, E. Rabaev, I. Sztarkier, J. Delgado, A. Porath, and A. B. Jotkowitz
April 2007
M. Garty, A. Shotan, S. Gottlieb, M. Mittelman, A. Porath, B.S. Lewis, E. Grossman, S. Behar, J. Leor, M. S. Green, R. Zimlichman and A. Caspi

Background: Despite improved management of heart failure patients, their prognosis remains poor.

Objectives: To characterize hospitalized HF[1] patients and to identify factors that may affect their short and long-term outcome in a national prospective survey.

Methods: We recorded stages B-D according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association definition of HF patients hospitalized in internal medicine and cardiology departments in all 25 public hospitals in Israel.

Results: During March-April 2003, 4102 consecutive patients were recorded. Their mean age was 73 ± 12 years and 57% were males; 75.3% were hypertensive, 50% diabetic and 59% dyslipidemic; 82% had coronary artery disease, 33% atrial fibrillation, 41% renal failure (creatinine ³ 1.5 mg/dl), and 49% anemia (hemoglobin £ 12 g/dl). Mortality rates were 4.7% in-hospital, 7.6% at 30 days, 18.7% at 6 months and 28.1% at 12 months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased 1 year mortality rate was associated with New York Heart Association III–IV (odds ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.78–2.41), age (for 10 year increment) (OR[2] 1.41, 95% CI[3] 1.31–1.52), renal failure (1.79, 1.53–2.09), anemia (1.50, 1.29–1.75), stroke (1.50, 1.21–1.85), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.25, 1.04–1.50) and atrial fibrillation (1.20, 1.02–1.40).

Conclusions: This nationwide heart failure survey indicates a high risk of long-term mortality and the urgent need for the development of more effective management strategies for patients with heart failure discharged from hospitals.

 







[1] HF = heart failure



[2] OR = odds ratio



[3] CI = confidence interval


B. S. Lewis, A. Shotan, S. Gottlieb, S. Behar, D. A. Halon, V. Boyko, J. Leor, E. Grossman, R. Zimlichman, A. Porath, M. Mittelman, A. Caspi and M. Garty

Background: Heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function is a major cause of cardiac disability.

Objectives: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and late clinical outcome of patients hospitalized with HF-PSF[1] on a nationwide basis in Israel.

Methods: The Israel nationwide HF survey examined prospectively 4102 consecutive HF patients admitted to 93 internal medicine and 24 cardiology departments in all 25 public hospitals in the country. Echocardiographic LV function measurements were available in 2845 patients (69%). The present report relates to the 1364 patients who had HF-PSF (LV ejection fraction ≥ 40%).

Results: Mortality of HF-PSF patients was high (in-hospital 3.5%, 6 months 14.2%, 12 months 22.0%), but lower than in patients with reduced systolic function (all P < 0.01). Mortality was higher in patients with HF as the primary hospitalization diagnosis (16.0% vs. 12.5% at 6 months, P = 0.07 and 26.2% vs. 18.0% at 12 months, P = 0.0002). Patients with HF-PSF who died were older (78 ± 10 vs. 71 ± 12 years, P < 0.001), more often female (P = 0.05) and had atrial fibrillation more frequently (44% vs. 33%, P < 0.01). There was also a relationship between mortality and pharmacotherapy: after adjustment for age and co-morbid conditions, mortality was lower in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (P = 0.0003) and angiotensin receptor blockers (P = 0.002) and higher in those receiving digoxin (P = 0.003) and diuretic therapy (P = 0.009).

Conclusions: This nationwide survey highlights the very high late mortality rates in patients hospitalized for HF without a decrease in systolic function. The findings mandate a focus on better evidence-based treatment strategies to improve outcome in HF-PSF patients.

 







[1] HF-PSF = heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function


December 2006
A. Jotkowitz, A. Porath, A. Shotan, M. Mittelman, E. Grossman, R. Zimlichman, B.S. Lewis, A. Caspi, S. Gottlieb and M. Garty, for the Steering Committee of the Israeli Heart Failure National Survey 2003

Background: Despite significant advances in the therapy of heart failure, many patients still do not receive optimal treatment.

Objectives: To document the standard of care that patients hospitalized with HF[1] in Israel received during a 2 month period.

Methods: The Heart Failure Survey in Israel 2003 was a prospective 2 month survey of patients admitted to all 25 public hospitals in Israel with a diagnosis of HF.

Results: The mean age of the 4102 patients was 73 years and 43% were female. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blockers and beta blockers both declined from NYHA class I to IV (68.8% to 50.6% for ACE[2]-inhibitor/ARB[3] and 64.1% to 52.9% for beta blockers, P < 0.001 for comparisons). The percentage of patients by NYHA class taking an ACE-inhibitor or ARB and a beta blocker at hospital discharge also declined from NYHA class I to IV (47.5% to 28.8%, P < 0.002 for comparisons). The strongest predictor of being discharged with an ACE-inhibitor or ARB was the use of these medications at hospital admission. Negative predictors for their usage were age, creatinine, disease severity class, and functional status.

Conclusions: Despite the dissemination of guidelines many patients did not receive optimal care for HF. Reasons for this discrepancy need to be identified and modified.






[1] HF = heart failure



[2] ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme



[3] ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker


April 2005
T. Ben-Ami, H. Gilutz, A. Porath, G. Sosna and N. Liel-Cohen
Background: Women with myocardial infarction have a less favorable prognosis than men. Many studies have indicated gender bias in the evaluation and treatment of myocardial infarction, but few data exist concerning these aspects in the management of unstable angina.


Objective: To investigate gender differences in the baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis of women with unstable angina.

Method: Data were collected prospectively as part of the Acute Coronary Syndromes Israeli Survey in 2000 at Soroka University Medical Center. In-hospital management and 2 year follow-up were monitored for 226 consecutive patients with unstable angina admitted to our medical center during February and March 2000.

Results: Women were older (71 ± 12 vs. 66 ± 12, P = 0.006), more diabetic (41.3% vs. 34.5%, not significant) and hypertensive (76.3% vs. 64.6%, P = 0.07). Women presented more often with atypical chest pain (18.8% vs. 7.5%, P = 0.038). Heparin, aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor were equally delivered, but more beta-blockers were administered to women (88.5% vs. 75.7%, P = 0.02) and more statins to men (48.1% vs. 35.4%, P = 0.07). Angiography rates were similar (17.7% vs. 19.6%). Similar management was documented during the 2 year follow-up. Re-hospitalization rates were similar (53.3% of women and 63.7% of men, NS). Men had a tendency to develop acute myocardial infarction more often (9.6% vs. 2.7%, P = 0.06) and to develop peripheral vascular disease (3.7% vs. 0%, P = 0.09), and they had a non-significant higher rate of coronary artery bypass graft (6.7% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.08). No gender difference was found in angiography (14.7% of women vs. 16.3% of men) or percutaneous intervention (13% vs. 16.7%). At 2 years there was no gender-related difference in mortality (13.3% of women vs. 16.3% of men, NS). Kaplan-Meier analysis for event-free survival after 2 years showed no gender difference in survival. Multi-regression analysis showed that gender was not a prognostic factor for survival.

Conclusions. We found no major difference in the management of men and women with unstable angina. Although men showed a tendency to suffer more major cardiac events, their 2 year prognosis was the same as for women.

November 2004
A.B. Jotkowitz, A. Porath and S. Glick
November 2003
J.E. Arbelle, A. Porath, E. Cohen, H. Gilutz and M. Garty, for the Israeli National Survey Group on Acute Myocardial Infarction, 2000

Background: In the emergency department the physician is often confronted with the decision of where to hospitalize a patient presenting with chest pain and a possible acute myocardial infarction – in the cardiac care unit or in the internal medicine ward.

Objective: To characterize the clinical factors involved in the triage disposition of patients hospitalized with AMI[1] in Israel to either CCUs[2] or IMWs[3] and to determine to what extent the perceived probability of ischemia influenced the disposition decision.

Methods: During a 2 month nationwide prospective survey in the 26 CCUs and 82 of the 94 IMWs in Israel, we reviewed the charts of 1,648 patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI. The probability of ischemia at admission was determined retrospectively by the Acute Coronary Ischemia Time-Insensitive Predictive Instrument. Co-morbidity was coded using the Index of Coexistent Diseases.

Results: The ACI-TIPI[4] score for patients admitted to CCUs or to IMWs was 76.2% and 57.7% respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that young patients with a high probability of ischemia and low co-morbidity or functional impairment were more likely to be hospitalized in CCUs than in IMWs.

Conclusion: In Israel, the factors that strongly influence the initial triage disposition of patients with AMI to CCUs or IMWs are age, perceived probability of ischemia, status of co-morbid conditions and functional impairment.

___________________________________



[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction

[2] CCU = cardiac care unit

[3] IMW = internal medicine ward

[4] ACI-TIPI = Acute Coronary Ischemia Time-Insensitive Predictive Instrument


April 2003
S. Behar, A. Battler, A. Porath, J. Leor, E. Grossman, Y. Hasin, M. Mittelman, Z. Feigenberg, C. Rahima-Maoz, M. Green, A. Caspi, B. Rabinowitz and M. Garty

Background: Little information is available on the clinical practice and implementation of guidelines in treating acute myocardial infarction patients in Israel.

Objective: To assess patient characteristics, hospital course, management, and 30 day clinical outcome of all AMI[1] patients hospitalized in Israel during a 2 month period in 2000.

Method: We conducted a prospective 2 month survey of consecutive AMI patients admitted to 82 of 96 internal medicine departments and all 26 cardiac departments operating in Israel in 2000. Data were collected uniformly by means of a hospital and 30 day follow-up form.

Results: During the survey 1,683 consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI were included. Their mean age was 66 years; 73% were male. The electrocardiographic pattern on admission revealed ST elevation, non-ST elevation and an undetermined ECG[2] in 63%, 34% and 4% of patients respectively. Aspirin and heparin were given to 95% of patients. Beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were given to 76% and 65% of patients respectively. Among hospital survivors, 45% received lipid-lowering drugs. Thrombolytic therapy was administered in 28% of patients, coronary angiography was used in 45%, and 7% of patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The 7 and 30 day mortality rates were 7% and 11% respectively.

Conclusions: This nationwide survey shows that one-third of the AMI patients in Israel are elderly (≥ 75 years). The survey suggests that clinical guidelines for the management of patients with AMI are partially implemented in the community. Data from large surveys representing the "real world" practice are of utmost importance for the evaluation of clinical guidelines, research and educational purposes.






[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction



[2] ECG = electrocardiogram


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