• IMA sites
  • IMAJ services
  • IMA journals
  • Follow us
  • Alternate Text Alternate Text
עמוד בית
Sat, 02.03.24

Search results


June 2018
Chen Dror MD, Amanda Sinai MD and Doron Gothelf MD

Background: Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic syndrome characterized by a variety of medical conditions and cognitive deficits along with distinct psychiatric and behavioral characteristics. To the best of our knowledge, no studies to date have comprehensively reported the prevalence of medical, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric disorders in one cohort of people with WS in one study.

Objectives: To detail the prevalence of the various clinical features of WS in a large nationwide Israeli cohort. To examine potential risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in WS.

Methods: We investigated the effects of cardiovascular anomalies, intellectual quotient (IQ), and phonophobia (fear of sounds) on the likelihood of ADHD. The study included 80 participants with WS (mean age 7.76 years). Relevant medical information from medical records was obtained retrospectively. In addition, IQ testing and psychiatric assessments using structured tools were conducted. The association between ADHD and cardiovascular anomalies, IQ, and phonophobia was analyzed using a logistic regression.

Results: Supravalvular aortic stenosis and supravalvular pulmonary stenosis are the prevalent cardiovascular anomaly in WS. Phonophobia and ADHD are the most prevalent psychiatric diagnoses in people with WS. Phonophobia was significantly associated with the risk for ADHD in WS participants.

Conclusions: Our findings regarding the type and prevalence of medical, cognitive, and psychiatric characteristics in WS correspond to results in previous publications. We also showed a potential link between phonophobia and ADHD that merits further research.

 

November 2016
Julia Berman MD, Adi Aran MD, Tamar Berenstein-Weyel MD and Ehud Lebel MD

Background: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is an idiopathic hip osteonecrosis prevalent in children < age 15 years. The etiology remains incompletely understood, partly because of multiple potential environmental risk factors and partly because of lack of genetic markers. It has been hypothesized that hyperactivity may induce mechanical stress and/or vascular damage at a fragile joint. 

Objectives: To assess children with LCPD for markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to their unaffected comparably aged siblings to exclude the contribution of hyperactive behavior versus environmental and/or genetic factors in LCPD. 

Methods: All children followed in the Pediatric Orthopedic Clinic, and their comparably aged siblings, were recruited. ADHD was assessed using the TOVA computerized test and DSM-IV criteria. Quality of life and sleep disorders as ancillary tests were assessed using the Child Health Questionnaire (Parent Form 50), Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument, and Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale.

Results: Sixteen children with LCPD (age 9.1 ± 3.3, 75% males) were compared with their closest-aged siblings (age 9.3 ± 2.6, 30% males). Mean TOVA scores of children with LCPD (-3.79 ± 2.6) and of their non-LCPD siblings (-3.6 ± 4.04) were lower relative to the general population (0 ± 1.8, P < 0.0001). Both group means were in the ADHD range (≤ -1.8) implying that 73% of this LCPD cohort and 53% of their non-LCPD siblings performed in the ADHD range, relative to 3.6% incidence expected in the general population (P < 0.0001). Other test results were similar in both groups. 

Conclusions: Our findings in a small cohort of children with LCPD and their comparably aged siblings do not support an association between LCPD and ADHD. ADHD markers were equally high in the LCPD children and siblings. 

 

June 2016
Muhammad Mahajnah MD PhD, Rajech Sharkia PhD, Nadeem Shorbaji MSc and Nathanel Zelnik MD

Background: Despite the increased worldwide recognition of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a variability in the diagnostic rate of both ADHD and its co-morbidities. These diversities are probably related to the methodology and instruments used for the diagnosis of ADHD and to awareness and cultural interpretation of its existence. 

Objectives: To identify consistent differences in the clinical profile of Arab and Jewish children with ADHD in Israel who differ in their cultural, ethnic and socioeconomic background. 

Methods: We analyzed the data of 823 children and adolescents with ADHD (516 Jews and 307 Arabs) and compared the clinical characteristics between these two ethnic groups. All patients were evaluated in two neuropediatric and child development centers in northern Israel: one in Haifa and one in Hadera. Children with autism and intellectual disabilities were excluded. 

Results: The distribution of ADHD subtypes was similar in both populations. However, learning disorders and psychiatric co-morbidities (behavioral difficulties and anxiety) were reported more frequently in the Jewish population. The most commonly reported adverse effects to psychostimulants were mood changes, anorexia, headache, insomnia and rebound effect, and were more frequently reported in the Jewish population (42.0% vs.18.0%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: We assume that these differences are related to cultural and socioeconomic factors. We suggest that the physician take cultural background into consideration when treating patients with ADHD.

 

December 2015
Aviv Weinstein PhD, Yafa Yaacov BA, Michal Manning BA, Pinhas Danon MD and Abraham Weizman MD

Background: Use of the internet and videogames by children and adolescents has risen dramatically over the last decade. Increasing evidence of internet and videogame addiction among children is causing concern due to its harmful physical, emotional and social consequences. There is also emerging evidence for an association between computer and videogame addiction and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between ADHD and internet addiction.


Methods: We compared 50 male schoolchildren, mean age 13 years, diagnosed with ADHD to 50 male schoolchildren without ADHD on measures of internet addiction, internet use and sleep patterns.


Results: Children with ADHD had higher scores on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), used the internet for longer hours, and went to sleep later than those without ADHD. 


Conclusions: These findings indicate an association of ADHD, sleep disorders and internet/videogame addiction.


 
August 2015
Lutfi Jaber MD, Dafna Kirsh MD, Gary Diamond MD FAAP and Avinoam Shuper MD

Background: Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic health problem with significant risk for long-term morbidity in adulthood.

Objectives: We examined long-term outcomes of ADHD in a population-based sample of childhood ADHD cases prospectively assessed as adults.

Methods: Long-term outcomes for 70 adults who were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood were examined and compared with data on the general population.

Results: Most subjects admitted to persistence of ADHD-related symptoms in adulthood, despite discontinuation of regular medical treatment and follow-up. Areas most severely affected by past and ongoing symptoms included driving performance and incidence of motor vehicle accidents, and rates of marriage stability over time. Relatively unaffected were occupational and academic achievements and military service. 

Conclusions: There is a need for outreach and better services for adults who were previously diagnosed with ADHD. 

 

November 2013
E. Ganelin-Cohen and A. Ashkenasi
 There is a well-established correlation between sleep disturbances and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A large number of pediatric patients diagnosed with ADHD have sleep problems, while patients with sleep disturbances often display behavioral patterns that resemble some features of ADHD. Despite these observations, the relationship between sleep problems and ADHD is not yet fully understood. It is often difficult to pinpoint which of the disorders is the primary and which a byproduct of the other. A complicating factor is that stimulant medication such as methylphenidate, a drug of choice for ADHD, may adversely affect sleep quality in ADHD patients. However, there have also been reports that it may actually improve sleep quality. This review examines the latest trends in the contemporary literature on this clinical dilemma.

September 2011
E. Lahat, E. Heyman, A. Livne, M. Goldman, M. Berkovitch and D. Zachor

Background: Several studies have suggested that iron deficiency may be related to the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) due to the role of iron in the production of dopamine and noradrenaline.

Objectives: To evaluate the status of iron deficiency in ADHD children, using ferritin levels, a reliable measure of iron storage in body tissue, as an iron status marker, and to investigate a possible correlation between ferritin levels and the diagnosis of ADHD.

Methods: The study group included 113 newly referred ADHD children aged 5–15 years (mean age 8.8 ± 2.7).

Results: Ferritin levels were below 20 ng/ml in 67 children (59%) and above 20 ng/ml in 45 (41%). There was a very low inverse statistical correlation between scores on Conners’ Rating Scale and ferritin levels, probably without clinical significance. 

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that low iron stores may be related to ADHD pathophysiology; therefore, ferritin should be included in the overall evaluation of children with ADHD.

 
 

I. Berger

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most prevalent chronic health disorders affecting school-age children. The disorder is the subject of much debate for several reasons, the major one being the diagnostic process, which in some aspects is unstructured and can be relatively easily biased. The impact of undiagnosed or misdiagnosed ADHD on the lives of many children can be severe. Therefore, it is important to understand the complexities of the diagnostic procedure in ADHD, including the cultural bias effect, the limitations of the DSM-IV-TR definitions, the effect of comorbid conditions on the diagnostic process, the gene-environment interactions, and the need to compose an objective, more accurate, and generally accepted diagnostic battery of tests. This review addresses the diagnostic difficulties of ADHD and considers some steps that would make ADHD a more easily identifiable disorder.
 

December 2001
Yaacov Fogelman MD and Ernesto Kahan MD MPH

Background: The prevalence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and its pharmacologic treatment have increased dramatically in the past decade in the United States and Britain. We examined the use of methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of ADHD in children in northern Israel.

Methods: We evaluated all prescriptions for methylphenidate filled in 1999 for children aged 5–18 years residing in northern Israel who were insured by Clalit Health Services, a health maintenance organization that covers approximately 70% of the population.

Results: Methylphenidate was prescribed to 1.45% of the children in northern Israel in 1999, an increase of 20% in the overall prevalence of methylphenidate use since 1992. Eighty-two percent were boys. The rate of prescription varied widely by type of settlement, from 0.2% in Arab cities and towns to 5.7% in kibbutzim. Primary care physicians wrote 78% of all the prescriptions.

Conclusions: The increase in methylphenidate use was much smaller in northern Israel than in most other developed regions and countries. More efforts at diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit disorders may need to be directed at Arab populations and those with inadequate medical services.

Legal Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or medical advice on any matter.
The IMA is not responsible for and expressly disclaims liability for damages of any kind arising from the use of or reliance on information contained within the site.
© All rights to information on this site are reserved and are the property of the Israeli Medical Association. Privacy policy

2 Twin Towers, 35 Jabotinsky, POB 4292, Ramat Gan 5251108 Israel