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עמוד בית
Tue, 04.10.22

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February 2018
Anat Milman MD PhD and Gad Keren MD

Electrocardiography abnormalities are a common finding in athletes. To facilitate the differentiation of physiological adaptation versus pathological remodeling, a series of guidelines has emerged in the past decade that attempt to improve specificity while maintaining a high sensitivity. Recently, T wave inversion in the athletic population gained more attention, resulting in accelerated research leading to novel findings not yet integrated into clinical practice. We aim to simplify the knowledge to date and integrate it into one easy to use practical flowchart.

May 2016
Shahar Grunner MD, Pavel Kotlarsky MD, Yaron Berkovich MD, Adi Givon BSc and Yaniv Keren MD

Background: Kite surfing is one of the trendiest water sports worldwide. With its growing popularity evidence has begun to accumulate regarding its potential for injuries which range from minor insults to death. 

Objectives: To define the epidemiology and distribution of common kite surfing injuries among recreational athletes. 

Methods: An open letter was published on the web calling for surfers to report injuries inflicted during recreational kite surfing. In addition, we received data from the National Center for Trauma and Emergency Medicine Research. 

Results: Our survey yielded only a small series of 48 injuries. Most kite surfing injuries are isolated injuries, although some are life threatening as occurred in two surfers who died due to severe head injuries. Among the injuries, 72.9% are related to the musculoskeletal system, followed by head and chest injuries (18.7% and 14.6%, respectively). Of the orthopedic injuries 48.6% are fractures, the majority in the lower limbs (58.8%). 

Conclusions: Our findings combined with those of previous articles on kite surfing-associated injuries contribute to a better understanding of such injuries, raise awareness in emergency department personnel, and indicate precautions needed to avoid or lessen incapacitating and potentially life-threatening injuries. 

 

January 2014
Itai Horowitz, Carlos Cafri, Lior Zeller, Alina Vodonos, Zvi H. Perry and Sergio L. Kobal
Background: The effects of exercise training on cardiac structure and function have been thoroughly investigated in athletes from sport-developed nations; few data are available on sportsmen from sport-developing countries.

Objectives: To assess the incidence and magnitude of the "athlete heart" phenomenon in an elite group of Israeli cyclists.

Methods: An echocardiography study was performed in 56 cyclists (49 males, mean age 38 ± 10 years, weekly average training 13.1 ± 5.9 hours); 96 sedentary subjects served as a control group.

Results: There were significant differences in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) between cyclists and the control group (48 ± 4.7 mm vs. 45 ± 4.1 mm respectively, P < 0.001), as well as in inter-ventricular septum (IVS) thickness (9.9 ± 1.2 vs. 8.9 ± 1.2 mm, P < 0.001) and LV mass index (LVMI) (79 ± 16 vs. 68 ± 13 g/m2, P < 0.001). In 5% of the cyclists LVEDD exceeded the upper normal limit of 56 mm. In 7% of the cyclists IVS thickness exceeded the upper normal limit of 11 mm. LV hypertrophy defined as LVMI 134 g/m2 was absent in the entire cyclist group.

Conclusions: Endurance sport activity in well-trained Israeli sportsmen results in a modest increment in LV dimensions and LV mass. LV dilatation and wall thickness above values compatible with primary cardiac disease are rare. These results highlight that in Israeli athletes any abnormal echocardiographic value must be thoroughly investigated and not simply assumed to be a consequence of sport activities.

September 2013
T. Fuchs, A. Torjman, L. Galitzkaya, M. Leitman and R. Pilz-Burstein

Background: Sudden death in athletes can occur during sport activities and is presumably related to ventricular arrhythmias.

Objectives: To investigate the long-term follow-up of athletes with ventricular arrhythmias during an exercise test.

Methods: From a database of 56,462 athletes we identified 192 athletes < 35 years old who had ventricular arrhythmias during an exercise test. Ninety athletes had ≥ 3 ventricular premature beats (VPB) (group A) and 102 athletes had ventricular couplets or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) during an exercise test (group B). A control group of 92 athletes without ventricular arrhythmias was randomly selected from the database (group C). Of the 192 athletes 39 returned for a repeat exercise test after a mean follow-up period of 70 ± 25 months and they constitute the study population.

Results: Twelve athletes from group A, 21 from group B and 6 from group C returned for a repeat exercise test. The athletes reached a significantly lower peak heart rate during their follow-up exercise test (P = 0.001). More athletes were engaged in competitive sports during their initial exercise test than in the follow-up test (P = 0.021). Most of the athletes who had VPB and/or ventricular couplets and/or NSVT during their initial exercise test had far fewer ventricular arrhythmias in the follow-up exercise test (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Athletes engaged in competitive sports are more likely to develop ventricular arrhythmias during exercise. These arrhythmias subside over time when athletes are engaged in non-competitive sports. 

December 2011
T. Fuchs, A. Torjman, L. Galitzkaya, M. Leitman and R. Pilz-Burstein

Background: Sudden death in athletes can occur during sport activities and is presumably related to ventricular arrhythmias. There are no guidelines concerning athletes who develop ventricular arrhythmias during an exercise test. It is unclear whether they should be allowed to continue with their competitive activity or not.

Objectives: To investigate the long-term follow-up of athletes with ventricular arrhythmias during an exercise test.

Methods: From a database of 56,462 athletes we identified 192 athletes, less than 35 years old, who had ventricular arrhythmias during an exercise test. Ninety athletes had ≥ 3 ventricular premature beats (group A) and 102 athletes had ventricular couplets or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia during an exercise test (group B). A control group of 92 athletes without ventricular arrhythmias was randomly selected from the database (group C).

Results: All athletes, except one who died from a dilated cardiomyopathy, were alive during a follow-up period of 70 ± 25 months. An abnormal echocardiogram was obtained in seven athletes from group A (10%), four from group B (5%), and one from group C (3%) (not significant). An abnormal echocardiogram was more likely to be present in competitive athletes (P = 0.001) and in female athletes (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Our results showed that ventricular arrhythmias during exercise are more commonly associated with cardiovascular abnormalities in young competitive athletes and in female athletes. When present, they necessitate a thorough investigation and follow-up.
 

January 2011
L. Zeller, M. Abu-Shakra, D. Weitzman and D. Buskila

Background: The term chronic multi-symptom illness refers to a spectrum of pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome, that are characterized by unexplained chronic pain, fatigue, and cognitive and mood complaints

Objectives: To examine the hypothesis that exercise cessation is associated with symptoms similar to CMI[1] in well-trained amateur athletes.

Methods: The study, conducted in running and triathlon clubs in Israel, involved 26 asymptomatic healthy athletes who regularly exercise 6.75 ± 3.65 hours a week. All athletes were instructed to refrain from physical activity for 7 days. All underwent a complete physical exam, rheumatological assessment including non-articular tenderness threshold (using dolorimeter) and tender points. In addition they completed the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Assessments were conducted before exercise cessation and 7 days later.

Results: Seven days after sports deprivation all subjects were significantly more tender by all tender measures (P < 0.001) (dolorimeter thresholds and tender point count). There was also a significant reduction in the scores for physical role function (P < 0.001), emotional role function (P < 0.001) and summary subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire after exercise cessation.

Conclusions: Exercise deprivation is associated with change in non-articular tenderness threshold and reduction in quality of life scores. This may be associated with the development of chronic multi-symptom illness.

 






[1] CMI = chronic multi-symptom illness



 
July 2001
Rachel Dankner, MD, MPH, Dipl Sports Medicine, Giora Kaplan, MA and Vita Barell, BA

Background: Israel lacks a systematic surveillance of sports injuries, and knowledge of risk factors and specific patterns of injury is inadequate. In order to promote prevention of sports-related injuries, the magnitude of the problem must first be identified and the incidence and severity of sports injuries described.

Objective: To conduct a survey on previous sports injuries among a sample of Israeli athletes.

Methods: A convenience sample of Israeli amateur athletes participating in the 1997 15th Maccabiah Games was randomly selected. The study group answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire that included sociodemographic data, and information regarding their sports activity and sports-related injuries that had occurred during the previous 2 years.

Results: The study group, aged 12-3 years (median age 21), comprised 301 consenting athletes in 28 different sports. Of these athletes 56.1% reported having had at least one injury. Most injuries (75.6%) involved the upper and lower extremities, and 37.8% of the injured sportsmen had received medical attention from a physician. Half of the athletes participated in contact sports - both collision and limited impact. This group had a much greater proportion of reported injuries in all age groups.

Conclusion: Surveillance of sports injuries should be expanded in order to develop appropriate prevention programs in Israel.

October 1999
Shmuel Epstein MSc and Alon Eliakim MD
 Background: The use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes, in particular anabolic steroids, is probably one of the major problems in sports today. During the early 1990s the Israeli Sports Federation and Olympic Committee established the Israeli Sports Anti-Doping Committee.

Objectives: To present a follow-up on tests for use of performance-enhancing drugs among elite Israeli athletes from 1993 until the present.

Methods: Since 1993, 273 drug tests (urine samples) were performed in elite Israeli athletes. These tests were done during major competitions, and at random during the regular training season without prior notice to the athletes. The urine samples were sent for analysis to an official drug laboratory of the Olympic Committee in Cologne, Germany.

Results: Since 1993, seven (2.7%) male Israeli elite athletes (5 weight lifters, a javelin thrower, and a sprinter) tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs — all of them for anabolic steroids, and two for diuretics as well.

Discussion: These findings suggest that the phenomenon of performance-enhancing drug use by elite athletes has also entered Israeli sports, and probably represent the tip of the iceberg among Israeli sportsmen.  Therefore, more drug tests should be performed, especially at random without prior notice and during the regular season. Athletes in the most popular sports such as soccer and basketball should also be tested.  The concern over the use of these agents is both medical and ethical.

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