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עמוד בית
Fri, 21.06.24

Search results

October 2018
David Dahan MD, Gali Epstein Shochet PhD, Ester Fizitsky MD, Miriam Almagor MD and David Shitrit MD

Background: Sepsis is a common cause of hospitalization, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often difficult due to the absence of characteristic clinical signs (e.g., fever and leukocytosis); therefore, additional markers, in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count, are needed.

Objectives: To prospectively link resting energy expenditure (REE) with CRP, WBC count, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores in ICU patients. Such a correlation may suggest REE measurement as an additional parameter for sepsis diagnosis.

Methods: Our study comprised 41 ventilated consecutive patients > 18 years of age. Patient demographic data, height, actual body weight, and SOFA scores were collected at admission. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. REE, CRP, and WBC measurements were collected at admission, on day three after admission, and 1 week later or as clinically indicated.

Results: Comparison of the REE and CRP changes revealed a significant correlation between REE and CRP changes (r = 0.422, P = 0.007). In addition, CRP changes also correlated with the changes in REE (r = 0.36, P = 0.02). Although no significant correlations in REE, WBC count, and SOFA score were found, a significant trend was observed.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to link REE and CRP levels, indicative of severe infection. Further study is needed to establish these findings.

August 2018
Haim Shmuely MD, Baruch Brenner MD, David Groshar MD, Nir Hadari MD, Ofer Purim MD, Meital Nidam MD, Merab Eligalashvili MD, Jacob Yahav MD and Hanna Bernstine MD

Background: Evidence has been emerging that Helicobacter pylori may also impact colorectal cancer (CRC). Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging can predict overall survival in CRC patients.

Objectives: To determine a possible association between H. pylori seropositivity and all-cause mortality among CRC patients evaluated by PET/CT scans.

Methods: This prospective cohort study was comprised of 110 consecutive CRC patients who had undergone a PET/CT evaluation in a tertiary academic medical center. Data included demographics, body mass index (BMI), tumor node metastasis stage at diagnosis, treatment, time from diagnosis to PET/CT, and PET/CT findings. All patients were tested for anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and followed for 36 months from the day of the PET/CT scan. Mortality was documented. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of H. pylori serological status.

Results: During the follow-up period, of the 110 CRC patients 41 (37.3%) died and 69 (62.7%) survived. Of the 41 patients, 26 (63.4%) were H. pylori seropositive and 15 (36.6%) were seronegative. Multivariate analysis showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with increased mortality (HR 3.46, 95% confidence interval 1.63–7.32), stage IV at diagnosis, metastatic disease found on PET/CT, longer time from diagnosis to PET/CT, lower BMI, and older age.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that H. pylori infection may be a risk factor for all-cause mortality among CRC patients who are evaluated by PET/CT. Multicenter studies with larger patient groups are needed to confirm our findings.

July 2018
Avishay Elis MD, David Pereg MD, Zaza Iakobishvili MD, Dikla Geva PhD and Ilan Goldenberg MD

Background: A patient`s individual chance of being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease can be determined by risk scores.

Objectives: To determine the risk score profiles of patients presenting with a first acute coronary event according to pre-admission risk factors and to evaluate its association with long-term mortality.

Methods: The research was based on a retrospective study of a cohort from the 2010 and 2013 Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys (ACSIS). Inclusion criteria included first event and no history of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease risk equivalent. The Framingham Risk Score, the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/ (ACC/AHA) risk calculator were computed for each patient. The risk profile of each patients was determined by the three scores. The prognostic value of each score for 5 year survival was evaluated.

Results: The study population comprised 1338 patients enrolled in the prospective ACSIS survey. The ACC/AHA score was the most accurate in identifying patients as high risk based on pre-admission risk factors (73% of the subjects). The Framingham algorithm identified 53%, whereas SCORE recognized only 4%. After multivariate adjustment for clinical factors at presentation, we found that no scores were independently associated with 5 year mortality following the first acute coronary event.

Conclusions: Patients with first acute coronary event had a higher pre-admission risk scores according to the ACC/AHA risk algorithm. No risk scores were independently associated with 5 year survival after an event.

June 2018
Rom Mendel MD, Maayan Yitshak-Sade PhD, Michael Nash MD and Ben-Zion Joshua MD

Background: The most common complication after tonsillectomy is bleeding. We investigated whether performing the procedure during the summer or the winter affects the bleeding rate.

Objectives: To investigate whether there is an association between meteorological conditions and the occurrence of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in the southern Israel Negev region.

Methods: All patients who underwent tonsillectomy from 2001–2013 at the Soroka Medical Center were included. We collected patient demographic data and indications for surgery. Meteorological data were obtained from a weather station operated by the Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection.

Results: Of 4438 patients who underwent tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, 432 (9.73%) experienced hemorrhage. Patients who suffered from PTH were significantly older: median age 9.61 years vs.4.7 years, P < 0.0001. When comparing patients without PTH to those who bled within 0–3 days after surgery, there was a higher risk for bleeding during the warmer seasons: relative risk (RR) 1.38, 95% confidence interval ([95%CI] 1.07–1.77), RR 1.45 (95%CI 1.17–1.80), and 1.62 (95%CI 1.27–2.06) comparing the winter to spring, summer, and fall, respectively. A statistically significant positive association was also found with the average temperature on the day of surgery. Bleeding more than 3 days after surgery was less likely in summer: RR 0.82, 95%CI 0.69–0.97. We found no association with temperature on the day of surgery and PTH after postoperative day 3.

Conclusions: Seasonality, and to an extent temperature, seem to play only a minor role in PTH.

April 2018
Joseph Menczer MD, Osnat Elyashiv MD, Erez Ben-Shem MD, Ofri Peled MD and Tally Levy MD MHA

Background: Uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis. An elevated thrombocyte count and thrombocytosis were found to be associated with poor prognosis in several gynecological tumors. Data regarding an elevated thrombocyte count and thrombocytosis, particularly in UCS, are scarce.

Objectives: To assess the frequency of a preoperative elevated thrombocyte count and of thrombocytosis in UCS patients and their association with clinicopathological prognostic factors and survival.

Methods: The preoperative thrombocyte count of 29 consecutive verified USC patients diagnosed in our medical center from January 2000 to July 2015 was recorded, and clinicopathological data of these patients were abstracted from hospital files. 

Results: Thrombocytosis was found in two patients (6.8 %) and both died of the disease. An elevated thrombocyte count was found in nine patients (31.0%). The percentage of patients with the poor prognostic factors who had a preoperative elevated thrombocyte count was not statistically different from those without these risk factors. The cumulative survival of patients with an elevated count was 22.1 months and that of those without an elevated count was 31.1 months. This difference was statistically not significant (P = 0.85). There was also no difference between the groups regarding the progression free survival.

Conclusions: No association between an elevated thrombocyte count and prognosis was found. Larger studies are needed to clarify this issue.

February 2018
Noam Shohat MD, Yossy Machluf PhD, Rivka Farkash BSc MPH, Aharon S. Finestone MD MHA and Yoram Chaiter MD MSc

Background: Children and adolescents are commonly referred to an orthopedic surgeon to assess knee malalignment.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of genu varum and valgum among adolescents, and to identify correlates of these conditions.

Methods: A medical database of 47,588 candidates for military service presenting to the northern recruitment center during an 11 year period was analyzed to identify clinical knee alignment. Based on the standing skin surface intercondylar distance (ICD) or intermalleolar distance (IMD), the prevalence rates of genu varum (ICD ≥ 3 cm) and genu valgum (IMD ≥ 4 cm) were calculated. The association of gender, body mass index (BMI), and place of residence to knee alignment was studied.

Results: The rates of genu varum and valgum were 11.4% (5427) and 5.6% (2639), respectively. Genu varum was significantly more prevalent among males than females (16.2% vs. 4.4%, P < 0.001). It was also more prevalent among underweight subjects and less prevalent among overweight and obese subjects (P < 0.001). Genu valgum was significantly more prevalent among females than males (9.4% vs. 2.9%) and in overweight and obese subjects compared to those with normal BMI, while less prevalent in underweight subjects (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that genu varum was independently positively associated with male gender, underweight, and living in a rural area. Genu valgum was independently positively associated with female gender, overweight, and obesity.

Conclusions: This study establishes a modern benchmark for the cutoff and prevalence of genu varum and valgum as well as associations with gender and BMI.

July 2017
Amir Dagan, Naim Mahroum, Gad Segal, Shmuel Tiosano, Abdulla Watad, Doron Comaneshter, Arnon D. Cohen and Howard Amital

Background: Patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) suffer from inflammatory diseases often treated by large amounts of corticosteroids. Whether this inflammatory burden also carries an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity, and especially ischemic heart disease, is not clearly established.

Objectives: To clarify the linkage between GCA and ischemic heart disease. 

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the association between GCA and ischemic heart disease, adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, among GCA patients and matched controls using the database of the largest healthcare provider in Israel.

Results: The study group was comprised of 5659 GCA patients and 28,261 age and gender matched controls. The proportion of ischemic heart disease was higher in the GCA group (27.5% vs. 12.5% among controls, odds ratio 2.65). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were also found to have higher concurrency in GCA. After stratifying for those cardiovascular co-morbidities using logistic regression, GCA remained independently associated with ischemic heart disease with an odds ratio of 1.247 (1.146–1.357 P < 0.001).

Conclusions: GCA is associated with both cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic heart disease. Healthcare professionals should not overlook this aspect of the disease when managing GCA patients. 


March 2017
W. Nseir MD, S. Artul MD, S. Abu Rajab MD, J. Mograbi RN, N. Nasralla MD and M. Mahamid MD
February 2017
Mahmud Mahamid MD, Tarik Yassin MD, Omar Abu Elheja MD and William Nseir MD

Background: Hyperplastic polyps (HPs) of the colon are the most common colorectal polyps. Metabolic syndrome components such as obesity and hyperlipidemia are considered the most common etiological factors for HPs as well contributing to the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease. Objectives: To determine the possible association between biopsy-proven steatohepatitis and hyperplastic colonic polyps. 

Methods: This retrospective cohort observational study conducted at the Holy Family Hospital in Nazareth, Israel, included subjects who underwent screening colonoscopy over a 2 year period. Data were extracted from the patient charts and included demographics, anthropometric measurements, vital signs, underlying diseases, medical therapy, laboratory data, and results of the liver biopsy. The colonoscopy report and pathological report of each extracted polyp were also evaluated.

Results: A total of 223 patients were included in the study: 123 patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and 100 patients without NASH who served as the control. Fourteen colonic adenomas (11% of patients) were found in the NASH group vs. 16 (16%) in the control group (P = 0.9); 28 HPs were found in the NASH group (22.7%) vs. 8 in the control group (8%) (P < 0.05). The multivariate analysis, after adjusting for, age, C-reactive protein and smoking, showed that the presence of NASH (OR 1.69, 95%CI 1.36–1.98, P < 0.01) was associated with increased risk for HP. 

Conclusions: Our study found an association between biopsy-proven steatohepatitis and the burden of hyperplastic polyp.


December 2016
Eyal Klang MD, Michal M. Amitai MD, Stephen Raskin MD, Noa Rozendorn, Nicholas Keddel MD, Jana Pickovsky MD and Miri Sklair-Levy MD

Background: Silicone breast augmentation is a common cosmetic surgery. Previous case reports demonstrated lymphadenopathy in the presence of implant ruptures.

Objectives: To investigate the association between enlarged axillary lymph nodes and silicone implant ruptures as seen on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Two groups were derived retrospectively from breast MRI reports in our institution for the period December 2011–May 2014. A search of our hospital records for "silicone" and "lymph node" was performed (group A), and the relationship between the presence of enlarged nodes and ruptures was evaluated. The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was calculated and the association between MRI imaging features and ruptures evaluated. A search for "silicone" and "implant rupture" was performed (group B) and, as for group A, the relationship between the presence of ruptures and nodes was evaluated and the prevalence of enlarged nodes in the presence of ruptures calculated.

Results: Group A comprised 45 women with enlarged nodes. Intracapsular ruptures were associated with nodes (P = 0.005), while extracapsular ruptures showed a trend of association with nodes (P = 0.08). The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was 31.4%. Nodes associated with ruptures showed a strong silicone signal (P = 0.008) and absent enhancement (P = 0.005). Group B comprised 73 women with ruptures. Enlarged nodes were associated with both intra- and extracapsular ruptures (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002 respectively). The prevalence of nodes in the presence of ruptures was 22.2%.

Conclusions: Enlarged axillary nodes were associated with ruptures in two groups of patients. This finding can guide clinical decisions when either enlarged nodes or ruptures are encountered in patients with silicone implants. The association between silicone lymphadenopathy and implant rupture raises concerns regarding the role of rupture in silicone-induced systemic disease.


November 2016
Julia Berman MD, Adi Aran MD, Tamar Berenstein-Weyel MD and Ehud Lebel MD

Background: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is an idiopathic hip osteonecrosis prevalent in children < age 15 years. The etiology remains incompletely understood, partly because of multiple potential environmental risk factors and partly because of lack of genetic markers. It has been hypothesized that hyperactivity may induce mechanical stress and/or vascular damage at a fragile joint. 

Objectives: To assess children with LCPD for markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to their unaffected comparably aged siblings to exclude the contribution of hyperactive behavior versus environmental and/or genetic factors in LCPD. 

Methods: All children followed in the Pediatric Orthopedic Clinic, and their comparably aged siblings, were recruited. ADHD was assessed using the TOVA computerized test and DSM-IV criteria. Quality of life and sleep disorders as ancillary tests were assessed using the Child Health Questionnaire (Parent Form 50), Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument, and Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale.

Results: Sixteen children with LCPD (age 9.1 ± 3.3, 75% males) were compared with their closest-aged siblings (age 9.3 ± 2.6, 30% males). Mean TOVA scores of children with LCPD (-3.79 ± 2.6) and of their non-LCPD siblings (-3.6 ± 4.04) were lower relative to the general population (0 ± 1.8, P < 0.0001). Both group means were in the ADHD range (≤ -1.8) implying that 73% of this LCPD cohort and 53% of their non-LCPD siblings performed in the ADHD range, relative to 3.6% incidence expected in the general population (P < 0.0001). Other test results were similar in both groups. 

Conclusions: Our findings in a small cohort of children with LCPD and their comparably aged siblings do not support an association between LCPD and ADHD. ADHD markers were equally high in the LCPD children and siblings. 


April 2016
Miriam Regev MD PhD and Elon Pras MD

Autoimmune diseases are classic examples of multifactorial disorders in which a large number of genes interact with environmental factors to form the final phenotype. Identification of the genes involved in these diseases is a daunting challenge. Initially the search involved the candidate approach where polymorphisms in suspected genes were tested for association in large cohorts of patients and controls. Today, the most widely used method is genome-wide association studies (GWAS), a method based on screening large panels of patients and controls with hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with microarray-based technology. Unique families in which autoimmune diseases are caused by single genes are another alternative. The identification of candidate genes is often followed by studies that provide biologic plausibility for the findings. The widely expanding list of genes involved in autoimmune conditions show that the same genes frequently underlie the pathogenesis of different autoimmune diseases. Despite all available resources, the main void of heritability in autoimmune conditions is yet to be discovered. Identification of these genes will help define new biological pathways and identify novel targets for the development of new therapeutic drugs.

August 2015
Jeffrey Shames MD MPH, Shimon Weitzman MD MPH, Yael Nechemya MD and Avi Porath MD MPH

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The risk factors for stroke overlap those for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a particularly strong risk factor and is common, particularly in the elderly. Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) has maintained a vascular registry of clinical information for over 100,000 members, among them patients with heart disease and stroke. 

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of stroke in MHS, and whether the association of AF and stroke, along with other risk factors, in the Maccabi population is similar to that in published studies.

Methods: Data on stroke and AF patients aged 45 and older were collected from the database for the year 2010, including age, previous transient ischemic attack (TIA), body mass index (BMI), prior myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes, hypertension, anticoagulation and dyslipidemia. A cross-sectional analysis was used to estimate stroke prevalence by AF status. A case-control analysis was also performed comparing a sample of stroke and non-stroke patients. This permitted estimation of the strength of associations for atrial fibrillation and various other combinations of risk factors with stroke. 

Results: Stroke prevalence ranged from 3.5 (females, age 45–54 years) to 74.1 (males, age 85+) per thousand in non-AF members, and from 29 (males, age 45–54) to 165 (males, age 85+) per thousand for patients with AF. AF patients had significantly more strokes than non-AF patients in all age groups. Stroke prevalence increased with age and was significantly higher in males. Multivariable analysis revealed that male gender, increasing age, AF, hypertension, diabetes, and history of TIA were highly significant risk factors for stroke. In addition, for males, dyslipidemia and prior MI were moderately strong risk factors. 

Conclusions: Analysis of the MHS vascular database yielded useful information on stroke prevalence and association of known risk factors with stroke, which is consistent with the epidemiological literature elsewhere. Further analysis of health fund data could potentially provide useful information in the future. 


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