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עמוד בית
Tue, 06.06.23

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June 2015
Yacov Shacham MD, Eran Leshem-Rubinow MD, Arie Steinvil MD, Gad Keren MD, Arie Roth MD and Yaron Arbel MD


Background: In the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), information on the incidence and prognostic significance of high degree atrioventricular block (AVB) in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients is limited.

Objectives: To assess the incidence, time of onset, predictors and prognostic significance of high degree AVB in a large cohort of consecutive STEMI patients undergoing PPCI.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 1244 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing PPCI. Patient records were reviewed for the presence of high degree AVB, its time of occurrence and relation to in-hospital complications, as well as long-term mortality over a 5 year period.

Results: High degree AVB was present in 33 patients (3.0%), in 25 (76%) of whom the conduction disorder occurred prior to PPCI. Twelve patients (36%) required temporary pacing, all prior to or during coronary intervention, and all AVB resolved spontaneously before hospital discharge. AVB was associated with a significantly higher 30 day (15 % vs. 2.0%, P = 0.001) and long-term mortality rate (30% vs. 6.0%, P < 0.001). Time of AVB had no effect on mortality. In a multivariate regression model, AVB emerged as an independent predictor for long-term mortality (hazard ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.20–6.44, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: High degree AVB remains a significant prognostic marker in STEMI patients in the PPCI era, albeit transient.

December 2013
Yacov Shacham, Eran Leshem-Rubinow and Arie Roth
 Studies on trials conducted before the use of thrombolysis demonstrated both short- and long-term benefits of beta-blockers, and one meta-analysis of those trials showed a 25% reduction in 1 year mortality. Treatment with beta-blockers was and continues to be recommended for patients following ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), but many patients failed to receive these agents, mostly because physicians were unconvinced of their benefit. A similar analysis of the studies in STEMI patients treated with thrombolysis also showed an overall 23% reduction in mortality associated with β-blocker use in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In the present review, we examine the relationship between the pharmacology of β-blockers and their potential utility in order to review early trials on their post-infarct efficacy and to place these findings in the context of this specific patient population in the era of primary PCI.

December 2012
Y. Shacham, E.Y. Birati, O. Rogovski, Y. Cogan, G. Keren and A. Roth

Background: The 20%–60% rate of acute anterior myocardial infarction (AAMI) patients with concomitant left ventricular thrombus (LVT) formation dropped to 10–20% when thrombolysis and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) were introduced.

Objective: To test our hypothesis that prolonged anticoagulation post-PPCI will lower the LVT incidence even further.

Methods: Included in this study were all 296 inpatients with ST elevation AAMI who were treated with PPCI (from January 2006 to December 2009). Treatment included heparin anticoagulation (48 hours) followed by adjusted doses of low molecular weight heparin (3 more days). All patients underwent cardiac echocardiography on admission and at discharge. LVT and bleeding complications were reviewed and compared.

Results: LVT formation was present on the first echocardiogram in 6/296 patients. Another 8/289 patients displayed LVT only on their second echocardiogram (4.7%, 14/296). LVT patients had significantly lower LV ejection fractions than non-LVT patients at admission (P < 0.003) and at discharge (P < 0.001), and longer time to reperfusion (P = 0.168). All patients were epidemiologically and clinically similar. There were 6 bleeding episodes that required blood transfusion and 11 episodes of minor bleeding.

Conclusions: Five days of continuous anticoagulation therapy post-PPCI in inpatients with AAMI is associated with low LVT occurrence without remarkably increasing bleeding events.

August 2011
E.Y. Birati and A. Roth

Telemedicine is the application of advanced telecommunication technology for diagnostic, monitoring and therapeutic purposes. It enables data transmission from the patient's whereabouts or his/her primary care provider to a specialized medical call center. Telecardiology is a highly developed medical discipline involving almost every aspect of cardiology, including acute coronary syndromes, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest and others. Israel is one of the leading countries in the use of telecardiology, achieving both extended survival, improvement of the patient's quality of life, and significant reduction in health costs. 

April 2007
N. Lipovetzky, H. Hod, A. Roth, Y. Kishon, S. Sclarovsky and M. S. Green

Background: Previous studies found some factors such as physical exertion, anger and heavy meals to be triggers for acute coronary syndrome.

Objectives: To estimate the relative risk of an ACS[1] episode associated with positive and negative emotional experiences and anger as potential work-related triggers.

Methods: A total of 209 consecutive patients were interviewed a median of 2 days after a cardiac event that occurred at work or up to 2 hours later. The case-crossover design was used. Positive and negative emotional experiences and anger episodes in the hours immediately before the onset of ACS were compared with episodes in the comparable hours during the previous workday. For anger the episodes were compared with the usual frequency at work during the previous year. Positive and negative emotional experiences were assessed by the PANAS questionnaire (Positive and Negative Affect Scale), and anger by the Onset Anger Scale.

Results: The relative risks of an acute coronary event during the first hour after exposure to negative and positive emotional experiences were RR[2] = 14.0 (95% confidence interval 1.8–106.5) and RR = 3.50 (95% CI[3], 0.7–16.8) respectively and RR = 9.0 (95% CI, 1.1–71) for an episode of anger. Using conditional logistic regression analysis, the highest relative risk was associated with negative emotional experiences.

Conclusions: Negative emotional experiences and anger at work can trigger the onset of an ACS episode. This could have implications for recognizing a cardiac event as a work accident. The implementation of stress-reduction programs in the workplace or use of preventive medications in workers at high risk for coronary heart disease should be investigated.

[1] ACS = acute coronary syndrome

[2] RR = relative risk

[3] CI = confidence interval

December 2005
S. Viskin, M. Berger, M. Ish-Shalom, N. Malov, M. Tamari, M. Golovner, M. Kehati, D. Zeltser A. Roth.

Background: Chlorpromazine is a dopamine-receptor antagonist antipsychotic agent. Because of its strong alpha-blocking and sedative actions, it has also been used as emergency therapy for extreme arterial hypertension. Published reports to date have included very small numbers of patients (i.e., 5–30).

Objectives: To analyze data on almost 500 patients who received intravenous chlorpromazine for the emergency treatment of uncontrolled symptomatic hypertension in the pre-hospital setting.

Methods: We reviewed data from 496 consecutive patients who received intravenous chlorpromazine as emergency therapy for uncontrolled symptomatic hypertension. Chlorpromazine was injected intravenously. The dose was 1 mg every 2–5 minutes until the systolic pressure was -<140 mmHg and the diastolic pressure -<100 mmHg with alleviation of symptoms.

Results: The mean dose of chlorpromazine administered was 4.5 +- 5 mg (range 1–50 mg). Only 33 patients (7%) required >10 mg. Chlorpromazine reduced the systolic blood pressure from 222.82 +- 26.31 to 164.93 +- 22.66 mmHg (P < 0.001) and the diastolic blood pressure from 113.5 +- 16.63 to 85.83 +- 11.61 mmHg (P < 0.001). The sinus rate decreased from 97.9 +- 23.5 to 92.2 +- 19.7 beats per minute (P < 0.001). These results were achieved within the first 37 +- 11 minutes.

Conclusions: Intravenous chlorpromazine is safe and effective when used as emergency treatment for uncontrolled symptomatic hypertension.


December 2004
N. Lipovetzky, H. Hod, A. Roth, Y. Kishon, S. Sclarovsky and M.S. Green

Background: Food intake has an immediate effect on the cardiovascular system. However, the effect of a large meal as an immediate trigger for the acute coronary syndrome has not been assessed.

Objectives: To assess the relative risk for an ACS[1] within a few hours after the ingestion of a heavy meal.

Methods: In a case-crossover study 209 patients were interviewed a median of 2 days after an ACS. Ingestion of a large meal in the few hours immediately before the onset of ACS was compared with the comparable few hours the day before and with the usual frequency of large meals over the past year. Large meals were assessed by a 5 level scale.

Results: The relative risk of an acute coronary event during the first hour after a heavy meal ingestion was RR[2] = 7 (95% confidence interval 0.75–65.8) when the day before the ACS served as the control data and RR = 4 (95% CI[3] 1.9–8.6) when the usual frequency of heavy meals ingestion during the previous year served as the control data. 

Conclusions: The ingestion of heavy meals can trigger the onset of an ACS. Education of the population to avoid heavy meals, especially in people at high risk for coronary heart disease, should be included in the prevention of ACS. Research on specific nutrients that may act as potential triggers for ACS should be considered.

[1] ACS = acute coronary syndrome

[2] RR = relative risk

[3] CI = confidence interval

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