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עמוד בית
Tue, 23.07.24

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June 2024
Elias Nasrallah MD, Hussein Zaitoon MD, Marina Zeltser MD, Ran Steinberg MD, Ran Miron MD, Hanna Farah MD, Ranaa Damouni-Shalabi MD, Imad Kassis MD, Halima Dabaja-Younis MD MPH

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSA) is an infectious pathogen associated with acute appendicitis; however, it is not consistently addressed by empirical antibiotic therapy, despite potential complications.

Objectives: To investigate the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of PSA-associated acute appendicitis in children.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis involving pediatric patients who underwent acute appendicitis surgery and had positive peritoneal cultures. Clinical, microbiological, and intraoperative data were extracted from medical records.

Results: Among 2523 children with acute appendicitis, 798 (31.6%) underwent peritoneal cultures, revealing 338 positive cases (42.3%), with PSA detected in 77 cases (22.8%). Children with PSA were three times more likely to exhibit high intraoperative grading ≥ 3 (93.4% vs. 76.8%, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.2–8.3, P = 0.023) and nearly four times more likely to have polymicrobial cultures (88.3% vs. 62.1%, 95%CI 1.8–8.0, P < 0.001) than those without PSA in peritoneal cultures. Duration of symptoms did not predict PSA isolation (P = 0.827). Patients with PSA had longer median hospital stays (8 days, interquartile range [IQR] 7–10) than those with other pathogens (7 days, IQR 5–9) (P = 0.004). Antibiotic treatment duration, intensive care unit admission rates, readmission, and mortality were similar between the two groups (P = 0.893, 0.197, 0.760, and 0.761, respectively).

Conclusions: PSA is a common pathogen in children diagnosed with acute appendicitis and positive peritoneal cultures. The likelihood of isolating PSA increases with high-grade intraoperative assessment and in the presence of multiple pathogens in peritoneal cultures, suggests antipseudomonal treatment.

January 2024
Yael Dreznik MD, Maya Paran MD, Efraim Bilavsky MD, Efrat Avinadav MD, Dragan Kravarusic MD

Background: The management of complicated appendicitis is inconclusive. Guidelines have not been established for the use of personalized antibiotic treatment.

Objectives: To investigate specific risk factors to consider during the initial first-choice antibiotic therapy in children with complicated appendicitis.

Methods: This study included all pediatric patients younger than 18 years of age who underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy during 2012–2022 at a single tertiary medical center.

Results: In total, 300 pediatric patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy due to complicated appendicitis. The patients were treated with ceftriaxone + metronidazole (CM). For 57 (19%) patients, the empirical treatment was changed to tazobactam/piperacillin (TP) due to resistant bacteria or clinical deterioration. The presence of generalized peritonitis during surgery and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels above 20 mg/L at admission were identified as risk factors for changing the antibiotic regimen from CM to TP.

Conclusions: Generalized peritonitis and CRP > 20 gr/L were highly correlated with changing the antibiotic regimen to TP. For such patients, initial treatment with TP may result in clinical improvement and shorter hospitalization. 

February 2023
Doron Carmi MD MHA, Ziona Haklai MA, Ethel-Sherry Gordon PHD, Ada Shteiman MSC, Uri Gabbay MD MPH

Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is a medical emergency. The standard of care for AA had been surgical appendectomy. Recently, non-operative management (NOM) has been considered, mainly for uncomplicated AA.

Objectives: To evaluate AA NOM trends over two decades.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on Israel’s National Hospital Discharges Database (NHDD). Inclusion criteria were AA admissions from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2019, with either primary discharged diagnosis of AA, or principal procedure of appendectomy. Predefined groups were children (5 ≤ 18 years) and adults (≥ 18 years). We compared the last decade (2010–2019) with the previous one (2000–2009).

Results: The overall AA incidence rate over two decades was 126/100,000/year; higher in children 164/100,000/year than 113/100,000/year in adults. Surgery was the predominant AA treatment in 91.9%; 93.7% in children and 91.1% in adults. There was an increase in AA NOM rates when comparing the previous decade (5.6%) to the past decade (10.2%); 3.2% vs. 9.1% in children and 6.8% vs. 10.7% in adults, respectively. Annual trends revealed a mild increase in AA NOM rates. Delayed appendectomy (within 90 days of AA NOM) was 19.7% overall; 17.3% in adults and 26.3% in children.

Conclusions: There was an increase in AA NOM rates during the last decade in the overall population. Since 2015, there has been a noticeable increase in AA NOM rates, probably associated with World Society of Emergency Surgery Jerusalem guidelines. Surgery is still the predominant treatment for AA despite the increasing trend in NOM.

October 2022
Ahmad Elnassasra, MD; Yehuda Hershkovitz, MD ; Yaniv Zager, MD; Ron Lavy, MD;
May 2021
Mor Aharoni MD, Yiftach Barash MD, Yaniv Zager MD, Roi Anteby MD, Saed Khalilieh MD, Imri Amiel MD, Eyal Klang MD, Yuri Goldes MD, Mordechai Gutman MD FACS, Nir Horesh MD, and Danny Rosin MD FACS

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak had an effect on healthcare.

Objectives: To evaluate the presentation and management of patients with acute appendicitis.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of all patients presenting with acute appendicitis to the emergency department of a large tertiary center during March and April 2020. Clinical features, diagnostic workup, and management were compared.

Results: Seventy-four patients presented with acute appendicitis during the pandemic compared to 60 patients during the same time the year before. There were no significant differences in patient demographics: age (P = 0.65), gender (P = 0.73), smoking status (P = 0.48). During COVID-19 patients were more likely to complain of right lower quadrant pain (100% vs. 78.3%, P < 0.01). Rates of surgical treatment was similar (83.8% vs. 81.7%, P = 1); mean operative time was longer during COVID-19 (63 ± 23 vs. 52 ± 26 minutes, P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in intra-operative findings including the presence of appendiceal perforation (16.3% vs. 14.5%, P = 0.8), abscess (6.1% vs. 9.7%, P = 0.73), or involvement of cecum or terminal ileum (14.28% vs. 19.63%, P = 1). Postoperative treatment with antibiotics was more prevalent during COVID-19 (37.1% vs. 18%, P = 0.04). Length of stay (1.82 ± 2.04 vs. 2.74 ± 4.68, P = 0.2) and readmission rates (6% vs. 11.3%, P =0.51) were similar.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect the presentation, clinical course, management, and outcomes of patients presenting with acute appendicitis.

September 2018
Shachar Naor MD DVM, Osnat Sher MD, Galia Grisaru-Soen MD, Dror Levin MD, Ronit Elhasid MD, Yuval Geffen MD, Dov Hershkovitz MD PhD and Asaf Aizic MD
March 2018
Hanan Goldberg MD, Gil N. Bachar MD, Riad Majadla MD, Ofer Yossepowitch MD, Jack Baniel MD and Edward Ram MD

Background: Right hydronephrosis secondary to acute appendicitis is an under-reported phenomenon with only several case reports published.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of this phenomenon in our database of patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis.

Methods: Data were collected on 1092 patients who underwent surgery due to acute appendicitis between 2003 and 2007 in our tertiary medical center. The data entailed demographic, surgical, and hospitalization parameters including ultrasound or computed tomography examinations and presence of right hydronephrosis prior to surgery.

Results: Out of 1092 patients, appendicitis was eventually diagnosed in 87.4% of the patients. Only 594 (54%) had preoperative imaging performed prior to surgery (ultrasound or computed tomography). Out of these 594 patients, 21 (3.5%) had a new right hydronephrosis diagnosed and all had appendicitis with 15/21 (71%) having a retrocecal appendix. Of those with retrocecal appendix, 10 were pregnant women (48%). Erythrocyturia was present in 15/21 patients (71%) and in 10/11 of patients (91%) after excluding those who were pregnant. No significant differences were seen in patients with hydronephrosis regarding age, hospitalization, and surgery time. In all patients, an ultrasound was performed 2 weeks after surgery demonstrating the disappearance of hydronephrosis. Median follow-up time was 41.7 months (range 14.8–118.4 months).

Conclusions: Our study shows that 3.5% of our cohort had right hydronephrosis secondary to acute appendicitis. Although this presentation is very rare, physicians should be aware of this phenomenon and the risk for delayed diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis.

 

Avinoam Nevler MD, Yaniv Berger MD, Avital Rabinovitz MD, Oded Zmora MD, Moshe Shabtai MD, Danny Rosin MD and Mordechai Gutman MD FACS

Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is one of the most common indications for emergency abdominal surgery.

Objective: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the management of acute appendicitis.

Methods: Consecutive emergency department patients referred for a surgical consult for suspected AA were prospectively enrolled in the study. Data regarding demographic, clinical and laboratory results were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed for all evaluated parameters. Clinical and laboratory markers were evaluated for diagnostic accuracy and correlation to the clinical severity, histology reports, and length of hospital stay.

Results: The study was comprised of 100 consecutive patients. ROC curve analysis revealed white blood cell count, absolute neutrophils count (ANC), C-reactive protein, total-bilirubin and direct-bilirubin levels as significant factors for diagnosis of AA. The combination of serum bilirubin levels, alanine transaminase levels, and ANC yielded the highest area under the curve (0.898, 95% confidence interval 0.835–0.962, P<0.001) with a diagnostic accuracy of 86%. In addition, total and direct bilirubin levels significantly correlated with the severity of appendicitis as described in the operative and pathology reports (P < 0.01). Total and direct bilirubin also significantly correlated with the length of hospital stay (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Serum bilirubin levels, alone or combined with other markers, may be considered as a clinical marker for AA correlating with disease existence, severity, and length of hospital stay. These findings support the routine use of serum bilirubin levels in the workup of patients with suspected AA.

October 2016
Michal M. Amitai MD, Eldad Katorza MD, Larisa Guranda MD, Sara Apter MD, Orith Portnoy MD, Yael Inbar MD, Eli Konen MD, Eyal Klang MD and Yael Eshet MD

Background: Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain pose a diagnostic challenge. Delay in diagnosis may result in significant risk to the fetus. The preferred diagnostic modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), since ultrasonography is often inconclusive, and computed tomography (CT) would expose the fetus to ionizing radiation

Objectives: To describe the process in setting up an around-the-clock MRI service for diagnosing appendicitis in pregnant women and to evaluate the contribution of abdominal MR in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting with acute abdominal pain over a 6 year period who underwent MRI studies. A workflow that involved a multidisciplinary team was developed. A modified MRI protocol adapted to pregnancy was formulated. Data regarding patients' characteristics, imaging reports and outcome were collected retrospectively. 

Results: 49 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis were enrolled. Physical examination was followed by ultrasound: when positive, the patients were referred for MR scan or surgery treatment; when the ultrasound was inconclusive, MR scan was performed. In 88% of women appendicitis was ruled out and surgery was prevented. MRI diagnosed all cases with acute appendicitis and one case was inconclusive. The overall statistical performance of the study shows a negative predictive value of 100% (95%CI 91.9–100%) and positive predictive value of 83.3% (95%CI 35.9–99.6%).

Conclusions: Creation of an around-the-clock imaging service using abdominal MRI with the establishment of a workflow chart using a dedicated MR protocol is feasible. It provides a safe way to rule out appendicitis and to avoid futile surgery in pregnant women.

June 2014
Itay Zoarets MD, Natan Poluksht MD and Ariel Halevy MD

Background: Appendectomies are the most common operations performed on an emergency basis. The accepted rate of "white" appendectomies is around 20%. In recent years, computed tomography (CT) scanning has been recognized as a valuable tool with high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The use of CT scans in the management of patients with suspected acute appendicitis is increasing worldwide.

Objectives: To assess whether introducing more liberal use of CT in the management of patients presenting to the emergency room with right lower quadrant pain or suspected acute appendicitis would reduce the rate of “white” appendectomies.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of the pathology reports and CT scans of all patients who underwent appendectomy during a 3 year period. We examined the correlation between the rate of CT scans performed and the rate of "white" appendectomies.

Results: Overall, we performed 797 appendectomies during the study period. In 2004, we performed 272 appendectomies and CT in 34 patients (12.5%). In 2005, we performed 275 appendectomies and CT in 83 patients (30.2%). In 2006, we performed 250 appendectomies and CT in 88 patients (35.2%). The percentage of "white" appendectomies decreased from 29% in 2004 to 21.1% in 2005 and to 18.8% in 2006.

Conclusions: It appears that a more selective use of CT scans in the management of suspected appendicitis could reduce the rate of "white" appendectomies.

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