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עמוד בית
Mon, 27.05.24

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December 2022
Lior Charach MD, Gideon Charach MD, Eli Karniel MD, Dorin Bar Ziv MD, Leonid Galin MD, Weintraub M MD, Itamar Grosskopf MD

Background: APOE genotype strongly affects plasma lipid levels and risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. Studies of apo-e allelic and APOE genotype frequencies among several populations have revealed interesting ethnic variations that might affect cardiovascular morbidity and cognition deterioration.

Objectives: To evaluate apo-e allelic frequency among Israeli newborns based on known variances in apo-e allelic frequencies in different countries.

Methods: We examined 498 consecutive neonates born at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Umbilical cord blood was sampled for genotyping and lipids. Birth weights were recorded. Demographics and parental risk factors for atherosclerosis were obtained from the mothers.

Results: Most parents were native-born Israelis. Other countries of origin of grandparents were Morocco, Russia, and Iraq. The prevalence of APOE genotypes in Israel is APOE 2/2: 1.4%, APOE 2/3: 8.2%, APOE 3/3: 77.7%, and APOE 4/4: 11.8%. There were no associations of APOE genotype with parental country of origin. However, there was a tendency for APOE 3/4 to be more frequent in newborns of parents of Asian and African origin. Genotype 3/3 was more frequent in newborns whose parents came from Europe and America (78%) compared to those from Asia or Africa (69%).

Conclusions: It is important to determine risk factors such as APOE genotype for evaluation of premature atherosclerosis. Determining genetic and environmental risk factors may facilitate earlier treatment and prevent heart and brain atherosclerosis. APOE genotypes did not appear to affect total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride levels in newborns.

October 2012
A. Wasserman, J. Ben-Shoshan, M. Entin-Meer, S. Maysel-Auslender, H. Guzner-Gur and G. Keren

Background: Atherosclerosis is a well-established inflammatory disease in which T helper 1 (Th1) cells play a key role. Regulatory T (Treg) cells drive a shift from Th1 to Th2 response and were shown to be reduced in atherosclerosis. ST2/interleukin (IL)-33 signal was found to promote Th2 response, attenuating atherosclerotic plaque progression.

Objectives: To evaluated the effect of IL-33 on Treg cell number.

Methods: We employed flow cytometry to determine Treg cell number, as well as ST2 levels, among splenocytes of C57BL/6J vs ApoE-/- mice. Soluble ST2 (sST2) levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 

Results: IL-33 contributed to an increase in Treg cells, but this association was attenuated in ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) atherosclerotic mice. As a possible mechanism we demonstrated a reduction in the levels of CD4+ST2+ cells by flow cytometry, which is cotemporary to the previously described decrease in Treg cells in ApoE-/- mice. Additionally, the serum level of the soluble ST2 (sST2) decoy receptor was higher in ApoE-/- mice than in control animals.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that a repressed ST2/IL-33 signaling may contribute to the decrease in Treg cells observed in atherosclerosis.
 

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