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עמוד בית
Fri, 01.03.24

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July 2022
Eran Beit Ner MD, Guy Ron MD, Ahmad Essa MD, Almog Levy MD, Aharon S. Finestone MD MHA, and Eran Tamir MD

Background: Lower extremity amputation related to diabetes is a serious outcome, which can have devastating effects on the patient and family. The epidemiology of amputations has recently been used as a possible measure of the adequacy of medical prevention and treatment of diabetes and diabetic foot complications.

Objectives: To report on patients undergoing amputations at one medical center in Israel, their co-morbidities, and the outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective chart study was conducted of amputees operated between 1 September 2017 and 30 September 2018.

Results: The study population comprised 72 patients who had major amputations for diabetes and/or ischemia, mean age 72 ± 10 years, 74% males, 93% with type 2 diabetes. Mean age corrected Charlson Comorbidity Index was 8.2 ± 2.1 with 90% (65 patients) presenting with a score of 6 or higher. Before the recent deterioration, fewer than 20% of the patients exited their home routinely and 24% had an official diagnosis of dementia. There were 31 below knee amputations (BKA) and 41 above knee amputations (AKA). The 30-day, 3-month, 1-year, and 2-year mortality rates were 15.3%, 27.8%, 43.1%, and 54.2% respectively. Median survival period was 20 months. Survival after AKA was 13.4 ± 20, which was significantly less than after BKA (25.4 ± 2.7, P = 0.097).

Conclusions: Factors other than the quality of management of patients with diabetes and complications may contribute to amputation rates; thus, making speculations from international comparisons of raw amputation rates problematic. This population was less healthy than reported in most studies.

February 2014
Noam Rosen, Roy Gigi, Amir Haim, Moshe Salai and Ofir Chechik
Background: Above-the-knee amputations (AKA) and below-the-knee amputations (BKA) are commonly indicated in patients with ischemia, extensive tissue loss, or infection. AKA were previously reported to have better wound-healing rates but poorer rehabilitation rates than BKA.

Objectives: To compare the outcomes of AKA and BKA and to identify risk factors for poor outcome following leg amputation.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised 188 consecutive patients (mean age 72 years, range 25–103, 71% males) who underwent 198 amputations (91 AKA, 107 BKA, 10 bilateral procedures) between February 2007 and May 2010. Included were male and female adults who underwent amputations for ischemic, infected or gangrenotic foot. Excluded were patients whose surgery was performed for other indications (trauma, tumors). Mortality and reoperations (wound debridement or need for conversion to a higher level of amputation) were evaluated as outcomes. Patient- and surgery-related risk factors were studied in relation to these primary outcomes.

Results: The risk factors for mortality were dementia [hazard ratio (HR) 2.769], non-ambulatory status preoperatively (HR 2.281), heart failure (HR 2.013) and renal failure (HR 1.87). Resistant bacterial infection (HR 3.083) emerged as a risk factor for reoperation. Neither AKA nor BKA was found to be an independent predictor of mortality or reoperation.

Conclusions: Both AKA and BKA are associated with very high mortality rates. Mortality is most probably related to serious comorbidities (renal and heart disease) and to reduced functional status and dementia. Resistant bacterial infections are associated with high rates of reoperation. The risk factors identified can aid surgeons and patients to better anticipate and possibly prevent severe complications.

July 2003
A. Korzets, Y. Ori, M. Rathaus, N. Plotnik, S. Baytner, U. Gafter and E. Isakov

Background: Lower limb critical ischemia is a major problem in dialysed patients.

Objective: To evaluate the results of revascularization procedures, amputations and prosthetic rehabilitation in dialysed amputees.

Methods: Major amputation was carried out in 48 patients (4.5% of the dialysis population), and 24 patients entered the rehabilitation program. Widespread arterial calcification was common and led to falsely elevated ankle-brachial pressure indices in 9 of 14 limbs. Eight patients underwent revascularization. Subsequent major amputation was carried out 4 ± 4.5 months after the revascularization (above knee in 5 patients and below knee in 3). Of the 16 patients who underwent primary amputation, only 2 were above-knee amputees. Seven patients with toe or metatarsal amputation went on to a major amputation 1.8 ± 1.2 months after the distal amputation.

Results: No differences were found between diabetic and non-diabetic patients regarding the number of revascularization operations performed, the level of major amputation, or overall survival. Prosthetic rehabilitation was considered successful in 12 patients, partially successful in 8, and failed in 4 patients. Patient survival time was shortest in those patients with failed rehabilitation. A younger age confirmed favorable rehabilitation results, while long-standing diabetics and bilateral amputees were poor rehabilitation candidates. Patients who underwent primary amputation had more successful rehabilitation. A comparison between 24 dialysed amputees and 138 non-uremic amputees revealed similar rehabilitation results, although hospitalization time was longer in the dialysed patients.

Conclusions: Early definitive therapy is essential when dealing with critical ischemia. After diagnostic angiography, proximal revascularization should be performed where feasible. Primary amputation is indicated in patients with extensive foot infection or gangrene. Prosthetic rehabilitation is warranted in most dialysed amputees.
 

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