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עמוד בית
Wed, 28.02.24

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September 2013
S. Harnof, M. Hadani, A. Ziv and H. Berkenstadt
 Background: Communication skills are an important component of the neurosurgery residency training program. We developed a simulation-based training module for neurosurgery residents in which medical, communication and ethical dilemmas are presented by role-playing actors.

Objectives: To assess the first national simulation-based communication skills training for neurosurgical residents.

Methods: Eight scenarios covering different aspects of neurosurgery were developed by our team: 1) obtaining informed consent for an elective surgery, 2) discharge of a patient following elective surgery, 3) dealing with an unsatisfied patient, 4) delivering news of intraoperative complications, 5) delivering news of a brain tumor to parents of a 5 year old boy, 6) delivering news of brain death to a family member, 7) obtaining informed consent for urgent surgery from the grandfather of a 7 year old boy with an epidural hematoma, and 8) dealing with a case of child abuse. Fifteen neurosurgery residents from all major medical centers in Israel participated in the training. The session was recorded on video and was followed by videotaped debriefing by a senior neurosurgeon and communication expert and by feedback questionnaires.

Results: All trainees participated in two scenarios and observed another two. Participants largely agreed that the actors simulating patients represented real patients and family members and that the videotaped debriefing contributed to the teaching of professional skills.

Conclusions: Simulation-based communication skill training is effective, and together with thorough debriefing is an excellent learning and practical method for imparting communication skills to neurosurgery residents. Such simulation-based training will ultimately be part of the national residency program.

January 2011
A. Gover, D. Bader, M. Weinger-Abend, I. Chystiakov, E. Miller, A. Riskin, O. Hochwald, L. Beni-Adani, E. Tirosh and A. Kugelman

Background: The rate of brain abnormalities in asymptomatic term neonates varies substantially in previous studies. Some of these rates may justify general screening of healthy newborns by head ultrasound.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of intracranial abnormalities among asymptomatic term newborns with HUS[1] and to detect high-risk populations that might need such screening.

Methods: This was a prospective study in 493 term newborns who underwent HUS and a neurological evaluation during the first 3 days of life. The neurological examination results were unknown to the sonographist and the examiner was blinded to the HUS findings. The abnormal HUS findings were classified as significant or non-significant according to the current literature.

Results: Abnormal HUS was found in 11.2% of the neonates. Significant findings were noted in 3.8% of the infants. There was no association between non-structural HUS findings (hemorrhage or echogenicity) and mode of delivery. There was no relationship between any HUS abnormality and birth weight, head circumference and maternal age, ethnicity, education or morbidity. The rate of abnormal neurological, hearing or vision evaluation in infants with a significant abnormal HUS (5.2%) was comparable to the rate in infants with normal or non-significant findings on HUS (3.1%).

Conclusions: There is no indication for routine HUS screening in apparently healthy term neonates due to the relatively low incidence of significant brain abnormalities in these infants in our population.

 






[1] HUS = head ultrasound



 
October 2005
O. Nissim, M. Bakon, B. Ben Zeev, E. Goshen, N. Knoller, M. Hadani and Z. Feldman.
 Moyamoya disease is a cerebral vasculopathy characterized mainly by progressive narrowing of the major intracranial vessels. While more common and having a familial predilection in the Far East, it can also develop in association with some common hereditary diseases and can be acquired after environmental exposure. In the young its manifestations are the result of cerebral ischemia. Adults usually suffer from repeated incidents of intracerebral hemorrhage. Surgical revascularization of ischemic cerebral territories plays a major role in their treatment. We review the literature and present our series of three adult and five pediatric patients; these patients were diagnosed at our institution and treated with indirect revascularization techniques.

 

February 2001
Zvi R. Cohen, MD, Revital Duvdevani, PhD, Dvora Nass, MD, Moshe Hadani, MD and Zvi Ram, MD

Background: The transfer of therapeutic genes into malignant brain tumors has been the subject of intense pre­clinical and clinical research in recent years. Most approaches have used direct intratumoral placement of a variety of vectors and genes, such as retroviruses or adenoviruses carrying drug-susceptibility genes, modified replication-competent herpes virus, and several vectors carrying tumor suppressor genes such as the p53 gene. However, clinical results have so far been disappointing, mainly due to the limited ability to effectively distribute the genetic material into the target cell population. Accordingly, alternative delivery approaches into the central nervous system, e.g., intravascular, are under investigation. Genetic vectors administered intravascularly are unlikely to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and transfer a gene into brain or tumor parenchyma. However, intravascular delivery of vectors may target endothelial cells lining the blood vessels of the brain. Since endothetial cells participate in a variety of physiological and pathological processes in the brain, their modulation by gene transfer may be used for a variety of therapeutic purposes. Angiogenically stimulated endothelial cells within tumors replicate rapidly and hence may become targets for retroviral-mediated gene transfer.

Objective: To assess the anti-tumor effect of transferring a drug-susceptibility gene into endothelial cells of the tumor vasculature.

Methods: As a model for this approach we delivered concentrated retroviral vectors carrying a drug-susceptibility gene via the internal carotid artery of rats with malignant brain tumors. The safety and efficacy of this approach, without and with subsequent treatment with a pro-drug (ganciclovir). was evaluated.

Results: No acute or long-term toxicity was observed after intraarterial infusion of the vector. Treatment with ganciclovir resulted in variable hemorrhagic necrosis of tumors, indicating preferential transduction of the angiogenically stimulated tumor vasculature. This was accompanied by severe toxicity caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage in vascular territories shared by the tumor and adjacent brain.

Conclusion: The data indicate that endothelial cells can be targeted by intraarterial delivery of retroviral vectors and can be used for devising new gene therapy strategies for the treatment of brain tumors.

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