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עמוד בית
Sat, 20.04.24

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April 2003
G. Amit, S. Goldman, L. Ore, M. Low and J.D. Kark

Background: Although the preferred management of a patient presenting with an acute myocardial infarction is in a coronary care unit, data based on discharge diagnoses in Israel indicate that many of these patients are treated outside such units.

Objectives: To compare the demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment and mortality of AMI[1] patients treated inside and outside a CCU[2].

Methods: We compiled a registry of all patients admitted to three general hospitals in Haifa, Israel during January, March, May, July, September and November 1996.

Results: The non-CCU admission rate was 22%. CCU patients were younger (61.6 vs. 65.5 years), less likely to report a past AMI (18% vs. 34%), and arrived earlier at the emergency room. Non-CCU patients were more likely to present with severe heart failure (30 vs. 11%). Non-CCU patients received less aspirin (81 vs. 95%) and beta-blockers (62 vs. 80%). Upon discharge, these patients were less frequently prescribed beta-blockers and cardiac rehabilitation programs. CCU-treated patients had lower unadjusted mortality rates at both 30 days (odds ratio=0.35) and in the long term (hazards ratio=0.57). These ratios were attenuated after controlling for gender, age, type of AMI, and degree of heart failure (OR[3]=0.91 and HR[4]=0.78, respectively).

Conclusions: A relatively high proportion of AMI patients were treated outside a CCU, with older and sicker patients being denied admission to a CCU. The process of evidence-based care by cardiologists was preferable to that of internists both during the hospital stay and at discharge. In Israel a significant proportion of all AMI admissions are initially treated outside a CCU. Emphasis on increasing awareness in internal medicine departments to evidence-based care of AMI is indicated.






[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction



[2] CCU = coronary care unit



[3] OR = odds ratio



[4] HR = hazards ratio


February 2003
N. Horowitz, M. Kapeliovich, R. Beyar and H. Hammerman

Background: Coronary stenting was recently introduced as a primary intervention for acute myocardial infarction. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that stenting may be superior to balloon angioplasty for the treatment of AMI[1]. However, routine stenting may also cause deterioration of coronary flow.

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and the outcome of patients who were treated with stenting for AMI in our center in the recent era of stenting.

Methods: Fifty-five patients with AMI were treated by stent implantation between January 1998 and December 1999. Adverse clinical events were recorded, including death, recurrent infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, cerebrovascular accident, and target vessel revascularization. In-hospital, 1 month, 6 month and 1 year follow-up was performed in all patients. Repeated coronary angiography was performed according to clinical indications.

Results: Baseline angiographic results showed Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 0 flow in 39 patients (70.9%), TIMI I flow in no patient and TIMI II/III flow in 16 patients (29.1%). TIMI grade 3 flow was achieved in 90.9% of patients at the end of the procedure. In-hospital mortality rate was 5.4% (2.1% in patients without cardiogenic shock). There was no evidence of re-infarction or TVR[2]. The rates of bleeding complication (all of them minor), CVA[3], and CABG[4] were 9.1%, 3.6% and 1.8% respectively. The 6 month mortality rate remained the same. Rates of re-infarction, restenosis, TVR and CABG were 3.6%, 14.5%, 14.5% and 5.4% respectively. The 1 year mortality rate was 7.3%. Restenosis rate was 18% and CABG 7.3%. One year event-free survival was 70.9%.

Conclusions: This study suggests that stenting is a safe and effective mode of therapy in the setting of AMI associated with a high rate of revascularization and a low short and long-term outcome.






[1] AMI = acute myocardial infarction



[2] TVR = target vessel revascularization

[3] cerebrovascular accident



[4] CABG = coronary artery bypass grafting



 
November 2002
Arnon Blum, MD, Julia Sheiman, MD and Yonathan Hasin, MD
November 2001
Haim Ashkenazi, MD, Bernard Rudensky, PhD, Esther Paz, MA, David Raveh, MD, Jonathan A. Balkin, MBBCh, Dan Tzivoni, MD and Amos M. Yinnon, MD

Background: Recent studies have suggested a possible association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease.

Objectives: To determine titers of antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with acute  myocardial infraction compared with titers in several control groups.

Methods: This prospective case-control study investigated 209 individuals. We assessed the serum IgG antibody titers to Chlamydia pneumoniae in 57 consecutive patients admitted with AMI to our intensive coronary care unit during a 4 month period. A serum sample was drawn upon admission after 6 weeks. Results were compared with those of four control groups: a) patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (n=18), b) patients with community-acquired urinary tract infection (n=42), c) patients with angiographically normal coronary artery disease (n=44), and d) patients with stable coronary artery disease (n=48). Serum immunoglobin G antibody titers to C. pneumoniae were determined using standard micro-immunofluorescene technology.

Results: Of 57 patients with AMI, 32 (56%) had a high lgG titer to C. pneumoniae (>=1:256) on the initial test, which remained unchanged (62%) after 6 weeks. The percentage of patients with high titers was significantly lower in the control groups: 5 of 18 patients (28%) in the pneumonia group (P<0.01), 11 of 42 (26%) in the urinary tract infection group (P<0.01), 11 of 44 (25%) with normal coronary arteries (P<0.01), and 17 of 48 (35%) with stable chronic ischemic heart disease (P<0.05).

Conclusion: The detection of high titers of lgG antibodies to C. pneumoniae in many patients with AMI, compared to control groups, suggest that chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and acute ischemic events.

May 2001
Yuksel Cavusoglu, MD, Bulent Gorenek, MD, Bilgin Timuralp, MD, Ahmet Unalir, MD, Necmi Ata, MD and Mehmet Melek, MD

Background: Previous studies have documented that reduction in QT dispersion after thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction depends on reperfusion status as well as infarct site. Primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty as compared with thrombolytic therapy has been shown to result in higher patency rates of the infarct vessel.

Objectives: To evaluate whether primary PTCA has a more favorable effect on reducing QT dispersion in patients with acute MI as compared to thrombolytic treatment.

Methods: The study population included 42 consecutive patients (33 men, mean age 58 ± 11 years) with acute Ml (24 anterior wall, 18 inferior wall) who were treated with primary PTCA (group A, n 21) or thrombolytic therapy (group B, n = 21) at 3.9+2 hours after symptom onset. QT intervals were measured before and 24 hours after treatment.

Results: On the admission electrocardiogram, patients with anterior Ml had higher values of QT and QTc dispersions than patients with inferior Ml (52±9 vs. 36±9 msec, R<0.05 and 61+4 vs. 56+4 msec, P=0.002, respectively). There was a significant reduction in QT and QTc dispersions from admission to 24 hours in all patients (from 50+9 to 37+9 msec, P<0.001 and from 59+5 to 42+5 msec, P<0.001. respectively), and also in group A (from 49±8 to 32±5 msec. P<0.001 and from 58+5 to 38+3 msec, P<0.001, respec­tively) and in group B patients (from 51+10 to 42+10 msec. P<0.01 and from 60±4 to 46±5 msec, P<0.001, respec­tively). QT and QTc dispersions were found to be shorter in group A at 24 hours after treatment than in group B (32 + 5 vs. 42+10 msec, P<0.001 and 38+3 vs. 46+5 msec, P<0.001. respectively).

Conclusions: Reperfusion therapy with primary PTCA or thrombolytic agents reduces QT and QTc dispersions in acute Ml. QT and QTc dispersions after reperfusion treatment are shorter with primary PTCA than with thrombolytic therapy.

June 2000
Paltiel Weiner MD, Joseph Waizman MD, Margalit Weiner PhD, Marinella Rabner MD, Rasmi Magadle MD and Doron Zamir MD

Background: Cigarette smoking is a major contributor to the risk of acute myocardial infarction and the subsequent morbidity and mortality. Physicians can play an important role in smoking cessation among patients with AMI because of their frequent contact with the patient during the event.

Objectives: To study the prevalence of smoking, age, localization of coronary occlusion, mortality and rate of smoking cessation in consecutive patients who were diagnosed with a first AMI in our center in 1989–93.

Methods: The study included 1,510 consecutive patients with first AMI: 973 men (512 smokers, 52.6%) and 537 women (215 smokers, 40%), whose mean age was 64.1±6.7 and 68.6±5.2 years respectively.

Results: The median age at the first AMI in non-smoking and smoking men differed significantly (70.4±6.8 vs. 56.6±6.1 years, P<0.001) while the difference in the women was smaller (70.4±6.9 vs. 66.8±7.2). The proportion of smokers/non-smokers among men was greater at a younger age and decreased proportionally with age. The overall mortality was 11.3% with a significant difference in mortality rate in the younger age groups between smokers and non-smokers (1% vs. 0% in the age group 31–40 years, P<0.05, and 6.1% vs. 0.8% in the 41–50 year age group, P<0.001). Only 62% of the smokers who survived the AMI declared that they had received anti-smoking advice from a physician during hospitalization. The cessation rate in this group was significantly higher than in smokers who had not been cautioned against smoking (56% vs. 18%).

Conclusions: Current smokers sustained their first AMI more than one decade earlier than non-smokers, and the younger smokers had a higher mortality rate. The majority of the smokers who received anti-smoking advice during their hospitalization for AMI quit smoking in the year following the acute event. 

__________________________________

 

AMI= acute myocardial infarction

November 1999
Ehud I. Goldhammer MD, Leonid Kharash MD, PhD and Edward G. Abinader MD
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