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עמוד בית
Thu, 13.06.24

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February 2023
Doron Carmi MD MHA, Ziona Haklai MA, Ethel-Sherry Gordon PHD, Ada Shteiman MSC, Uri Gabbay MD MPH

Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is a medical emergency. The standard of care for AA had been surgical appendectomy. Recently, non-operative management (NOM) has been considered, mainly for uncomplicated AA.

Objectives: To evaluate AA NOM trends over two decades.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on Israel’s National Hospital Discharges Database (NHDD). Inclusion criteria were AA admissions from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2019, with either primary discharged diagnosis of AA, or principal procedure of appendectomy. Predefined groups were children (5 ≤ 18 years) and adults (≥ 18 years). We compared the last decade (2010–2019) with the previous one (2000–2009).

Results: The overall AA incidence rate over two decades was 126/100,000/year; higher in children 164/100,000/year than 113/100,000/year in adults. Surgery was the predominant AA treatment in 91.9%; 93.7% in children and 91.1% in adults. There was an increase in AA NOM rates when comparing the previous decade (5.6%) to the past decade (10.2%); 3.2% vs. 9.1% in children and 6.8% vs. 10.7% in adults, respectively. Annual trends revealed a mild increase in AA NOM rates. Delayed appendectomy (within 90 days of AA NOM) was 19.7% overall; 17.3% in adults and 26.3% in children.

Conclusions: There was an increase in AA NOM rates during the last decade in the overall population. Since 2015, there has been a noticeable increase in AA NOM rates, probably associated with World Society of Emergency Surgery Jerusalem guidelines. Surgery is still the predominant treatment for AA despite the increasing trend in NOM.

May 2021
Mor Aharoni MD, Yiftach Barash MD, Yaniv Zager MD, Roi Anteby MD, Saed Khalilieh MD, Imri Amiel MD, Eyal Klang MD, Yuri Goldes MD, Mordechai Gutman MD FACS, Nir Horesh MD, and Danny Rosin MD FACS

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak had an effect on healthcare.

Objectives: To evaluate the presentation and management of patients with acute appendicitis.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of all patients presenting with acute appendicitis to the emergency department of a large tertiary center during March and April 2020. Clinical features, diagnostic workup, and management were compared.

Results: Seventy-four patients presented with acute appendicitis during the pandemic compared to 60 patients during the same time the year before. There were no significant differences in patient demographics: age (P = 0.65), gender (P = 0.73), smoking status (P = 0.48). During COVID-19 patients were more likely to complain of right lower quadrant pain (100% vs. 78.3%, P < 0.01). Rates of surgical treatment was similar (83.8% vs. 81.7%, P = 1); mean operative time was longer during COVID-19 (63 ± 23 vs. 52 ± 26 minutes, P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in intra-operative findings including the presence of appendiceal perforation (16.3% vs. 14.5%, P = 0.8), abscess (6.1% vs. 9.7%, P = 0.73), or involvement of cecum or terminal ileum (14.28% vs. 19.63%, P = 1). Postoperative treatment with antibiotics was more prevalent during COVID-19 (37.1% vs. 18%, P = 0.04). Length of stay (1.82 ± 2.04 vs. 2.74 ± 4.68, P = 0.2) and readmission rates (6% vs. 11.3%, P =0.51) were similar.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect the presentation, clinical course, management, and outcomes of patients presenting with acute appendicitis.

March 2018
Hanan Goldberg MD, Gil N. Bachar MD, Riad Majadla MD, Ofer Yossepowitch MD, Jack Baniel MD and Edward Ram MD

Background: Right hydronephrosis secondary to acute appendicitis is an under-reported phenomenon with only several case reports published.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of this phenomenon in our database of patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis.

Methods: Data were collected on 1092 patients who underwent surgery due to acute appendicitis between 2003 and 2007 in our tertiary medical center. The data entailed demographic, surgical, and hospitalization parameters including ultrasound or computed tomography examinations and presence of right hydronephrosis prior to surgery.

Results: Out of 1092 patients, appendicitis was eventually diagnosed in 87.4% of the patients. Only 594 (54%) had preoperative imaging performed prior to surgery (ultrasound or computed tomography). Out of these 594 patients, 21 (3.5%) had a new right hydronephrosis diagnosed and all had appendicitis with 15/21 (71%) having a retrocecal appendix. Of those with retrocecal appendix, 10 were pregnant women (48%). Erythrocyturia was present in 15/21 patients (71%) and in 10/11 of patients (91%) after excluding those who were pregnant. No significant differences were seen in patients with hydronephrosis regarding age, hospitalization, and surgery time. In all patients, an ultrasound was performed 2 weeks after surgery demonstrating the disappearance of hydronephrosis. Median follow-up time was 41.7 months (range 14.8–118.4 months).

Conclusions: Our study shows that 3.5% of our cohort had right hydronephrosis secondary to acute appendicitis. Although this presentation is very rare, physicians should be aware of this phenomenon and the risk for delayed diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis.

 

Avinoam Nevler MD, Yaniv Berger MD, Avital Rabinovitz MD, Oded Zmora MD, Moshe Shabtai MD, Danny Rosin MD and Mordechai Gutman MD FACS

Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is one of the most common indications for emergency abdominal surgery.

Objective: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the management of acute appendicitis.

Methods: Consecutive emergency department patients referred for a surgical consult for suspected AA were prospectively enrolled in the study. Data regarding demographic, clinical and laboratory results were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed for all evaluated parameters. Clinical and laboratory markers were evaluated for diagnostic accuracy and correlation to the clinical severity, histology reports, and length of hospital stay.

Results: The study was comprised of 100 consecutive patients. ROC curve analysis revealed white blood cell count, absolute neutrophils count (ANC), C-reactive protein, total-bilirubin and direct-bilirubin levels as significant factors for diagnosis of AA. The combination of serum bilirubin levels, alanine transaminase levels, and ANC yielded the highest area under the curve (0.898, 95% confidence interval 0.835–0.962, P<0.001) with a diagnostic accuracy of 86%. In addition, total and direct bilirubin levels significantly correlated with the severity of appendicitis as described in the operative and pathology reports (P < 0.01). Total and direct bilirubin also significantly correlated with the length of hospital stay (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Serum bilirubin levels, alone or combined with other markers, may be considered as a clinical marker for AA correlating with disease existence, severity, and length of hospital stay. These findings support the routine use of serum bilirubin levels in the workup of patients with suspected AA.

August 2005
R. Elazary, A. Maly, A. Khalaileh, C. Rubinstein, K. Olstain-Pops, G. Almogy, A.I. Rivkind and Y. Mintz
April 2001
Ofer N. Gorfit, MD and Khalil Abu-Dalu, MD

Background: Despite years of research and clinical experience with acute appendicitis, the rate of complications in the pediatric age group continues to be high.

Objective: To characterize the profile of the child with appendicitis complicared by perforation or intraabdominal abscess.

Methods: Between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 1997 in our department, 581 children under the age of 14 years were clinically diagnosed as suffering from "acute appendici­tis". The final diagnoses were: white appendix in 28 cases (4.8%), acute non-complicated appendicitis in 472 (81%), and complicated appendicitis in 81 (13.9%), including 51 cases of free perforation (8.7%) and 30 cases of intraabdominal abscess (5.2%). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all children with complicated appendicitis and those of 70 randomly selected children with non-complicated appendicitis, and compared patient age, gender, weight percentile, past medical history, and course of the illness.

Results: The children with complicated appendicitis were significantly younger (R~4.8*10~7), they had higher oral and rectal temperatures (P=7.9*10-8), higher platelet count (P=0.0008) and lower hemoglobin level (P=0.004). No difference was found in white blood count (P=0.41). Total delay from symptom onset to surgery was 33 hours (SD 23) in the non-complicated group, 60 hours (SD 38) in the perforated appendicitis group, and 176 hours (SD 107) in the intra­abdominal abscess group (P=4.6*10-8). No difference in intra­hospital delay was found.

Conclusions: Children with complicated appendicitis are characterized by younger age, longer delay from symptom onset to correct diagnosis, and typical laboratory findings. Delays in diagnosis can be avoided by first considering the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in the differential diagnosis when examining any child with abdominal pain.

October 1999
Igor Sukhotnik MD, Bassem Kawar MD, Dan Miron MD, Dani Yardeni MD and Leonardo Siplovich MD
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