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עמוד בית
Fri, 24.05.24

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January 2001
Abraham Matitiau, MD, Einat Birk, MD, Ludmyla Kachko, MD, Leonard C. Blieden, MD and Elchanan Bruckheimer, MB, BS

Background: Secundum atrial septal defect is a common congenital heart defect that causes right heart volume overload and produces symptoms usually after the third decade of life. Treatment until the last few years has been open heart surgery.

Objective: To review our early experience with transcatheter closure of ASD2 using the Amplatzer septal occluder.

Methods: Between November 1999 and February 2000, 20 children and young adults with a median age of 9.1 years (4.2-35.1 years) were referred for transcatheter closure of ASD2. Diagnosis was established by transthoracic echocardiography. Implantation was performed under general anesthesia through the femoral vein with the guidance of transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopy. Femoral arterial puncture was performed for blood pressure monitoring during the procedure. The device size chosen was similar to the balloon-stretched diameter of the ASD2.

Results: Implantation was completed successfully in 18 patients. Two patients were referred for elective surgery: one had an unsuitable anatomy for transcatheter closure by TEE in the catheterization laboratory and the device could not implanted properly, the other patient had a large multiperforated septal aneurysm that was retrieved. Mean ASD2 diameter by TTE and TEE was similar (13.9 + 3 mm, 13.4 + 3.5 mm) and mean stretched diameter was 18.3 + 4.3 mm. Mean Qp:Qs (pulmonary flow: systemic flow) was 2.2 + 0.6. Mean fluoroscopy time for the procedure was 14.8 + 4.8 minutes.

The patients were discharged the day after the procedure.

Four patients had a tiny leak immediately post-procedure, and none had a leak at one month follow-up. The only complication was a small pseudoaneurysm of the femoral artery in one patient, that resolved spontaneously.

Conclusion: Transcatheter closure of ASD2 with the Amplatzer septal occluder is a safe and effective alternative to surgical closure. Long-term outcome has to be evaluated.

February 2000
Einat Birk MD, Alon Stamler MD, Jacob Katz MD, Michael Berant, Ovadia Dagan MD, Abraham Matitiau, Eldad Erez MD, Leonard C. Blieden and Bernardo A. Vidne

Background: Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital malformation that presents a diagnostic challenge to the pediatrician and pediatric cardiologist. Although surgical repair is always indicated, the optimal technique has yet to be determined.      

Objectives: To review our experience with the diagnosis of children with ALCAPA and to assess short to midterm surgical results.

Methods: Between 1992 and 1998, 13 infants and children (2 months to 15 years) were treated for ALCAPA at our medical center. Eight were diagnosed during the first year of life; all were symptomatic and had severe dysfunction of the left ventricle. The five patients diagnosed at an older age had normal myocardial function. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography alone in seven patients; six required catheterization (one infant and all older patients). Surgery was performed in 12 patients to establish dual coronary artery system: 7 underwent the Takeuchi procedure and 5 had re-implantation of the anomalous left coronary artery.

Results: One infant died shortly after diagnosis before surgical repair was attempted, and one died postoperatively. Four patients required additional surgery: three for late complications of the Takeuchi procedure and one valve replacement for mitral insufficiency. Recent evaluation revealed good global left ventricle function in all patients except for one, who is still within the recovery phase and shows gradual improvement. However, most patients who presented with severe myocardial dysfunction upon diagnosis still display abnormal features such as echo-dense papillary muscles or evidence of small akinetic segments. In this group, early repair was associated with faster myocardial recovery.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of ALCAPA remains a clinical challenge to the pediatrician and cardiologist. Diagnosis can be established echocardiographically, and early diagnosis and treatment may lead to faster myocardial recovery. The preferred surgical method appears to be re-implantation of the ALCA. The chance for good recovery of global ventricular function is high even in the sickest patients, nonetheless abnormal myocardial features can be identified even years after surgery.

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ALCAPA= anomolous origin of the left coronary artery from pulmonary artery.

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