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עמוד בית
Wed, 22.05.24

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April 2007
M. Garty, A. Shotan, S. Gottlieb, M. Mittelman, A. Porath, B.S. Lewis, E. Grossman, S. Behar, J. Leor, M. S. Green, R. Zimlichman and A. Caspi

Background: Despite improved management of heart failure patients, their prognosis remains poor.

Objectives: To characterize hospitalized HF[1] patients and to identify factors that may affect their short and long-term outcome in a national prospective survey.

Methods: We recorded stages B-D according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association definition of HF patients hospitalized in internal medicine and cardiology departments in all 25 public hospitals in Israel.

Results: During March-April 2003, 4102 consecutive patients were recorded. Their mean age was 73 ± 12 years and 57% were males; 75.3% were hypertensive, 50% diabetic and 59% dyslipidemic; 82% had coronary artery disease, 33% atrial fibrillation, 41% renal failure (creatinine ³ 1.5 mg/dl), and 49% anemia (hemoglobin £ 12 g/dl). Mortality rates were 4.7% in-hospital, 7.6% at 30 days, 18.7% at 6 months and 28.1% at 12 months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased 1 year mortality rate was associated with New York Heart Association III–IV (odds ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.78–2.41), age (for 10 year increment) (OR[2] 1.41, 95% CI[3] 1.31–1.52), renal failure (1.79, 1.53–2.09), anemia (1.50, 1.29–1.75), stroke (1.50, 1.21–1.85), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.25, 1.04–1.50) and atrial fibrillation (1.20, 1.02–1.40).

Conclusions: This nationwide heart failure survey indicates a high risk of long-term mortality and the urgent need for the development of more effective management strategies for patients with heart failure discharged from hospitals.

 







[1] HF = heart failure



[2] OR = odds ratio



[3] CI = confidence interval


B. S. Lewis, A. Shotan, S. Gottlieb, S. Behar, D. A. Halon, V. Boyko, J. Leor, E. Grossman, R. Zimlichman, A. Porath, M. Mittelman, A. Caspi and M. Garty

Background: Heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function is a major cause of cardiac disability.

Objectives: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and late clinical outcome of patients hospitalized with HF-PSF[1] on a nationwide basis in Israel.

Methods: The Israel nationwide HF survey examined prospectively 4102 consecutive HF patients admitted to 93 internal medicine and 24 cardiology departments in all 25 public hospitals in the country. Echocardiographic LV function measurements were available in 2845 patients (69%). The present report relates to the 1364 patients who had HF-PSF (LV ejection fraction ≥ 40%).

Results: Mortality of HF-PSF patients was high (in-hospital 3.5%, 6 months 14.2%, 12 months 22.0%), but lower than in patients with reduced systolic function (all P < 0.01). Mortality was higher in patients with HF as the primary hospitalization diagnosis (16.0% vs. 12.5% at 6 months, P = 0.07 and 26.2% vs. 18.0% at 12 months, P = 0.0002). Patients with HF-PSF who died were older (78 ± 10 vs. 71 ± 12 years, P < 0.001), more often female (P = 0.05) and had atrial fibrillation more frequently (44% vs. 33%, P < 0.01). There was also a relationship between mortality and pharmacotherapy: after adjustment for age and co-morbid conditions, mortality was lower in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (P = 0.0003) and angiotensin receptor blockers (P = 0.002) and higher in those receiving digoxin (P = 0.003) and diuretic therapy (P = 0.009).

Conclusions: This nationwide survey highlights the very high late mortality rates in patients hospitalized for HF without a decrease in systolic function. The findings mandate a focus on better evidence-based treatment strategies to improve outcome in HF-PSF patients.

 







[1] HF-PSF = heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function


December 2006
A. Jotkowitz, A. Porath, A. Shotan, M. Mittelman, E. Grossman, R. Zimlichman, B.S. Lewis, A. Caspi, S. Gottlieb and M. Garty, for the Steering Committee of the Israeli Heart Failure National Survey 2003

Background: Despite significant advances in the therapy of heart failure, many patients still do not receive optimal treatment.

Objectives: To document the standard of care that patients hospitalized with HF[1] in Israel received during a 2 month period.

Methods: The Heart Failure Survey in Israel 2003 was a prospective 2 month survey of patients admitted to all 25 public hospitals in Israel with a diagnosis of HF.

Results: The mean age of the 4102 patients was 73 years and 43% were female. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blockers and beta blockers both declined from NYHA class I to IV (68.8% to 50.6% for ACE[2]-inhibitor/ARB[3] and 64.1% to 52.9% for beta blockers, P < 0.001 for comparisons). The percentage of patients by NYHA class taking an ACE-inhibitor or ARB and a beta blocker at hospital discharge also declined from NYHA class I to IV (47.5% to 28.8%, P < 0.002 for comparisons). The strongest predictor of being discharged with an ACE-inhibitor or ARB was the use of these medications at hospital admission. Negative predictors for their usage were age, creatinine, disease severity class, and functional status.

Conclusions: Despite the dissemination of guidelines many patients did not receive optimal care for HF. Reasons for this discrepancy need to be identified and modified.






[1] HF = heart failure



[2] ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme



[3] ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker


January 2003
S. Goland, G. Loutaty, A. Arditi, E. Snir, I. Abend and A. Caspi

Background: Concomitant mitral valve regurgitation is often present in patients with aortic stenosis. The additional MV[1] replacement is associated with high operative risk. Previous studies have shown an amelioration of MV regurgitation after aortic valve replacement but most of the patient groups were heterogenous.

Objectives: To determine whether AV[2] replacement for aortic stenosis has any effect on MV regurgitation.

Methods: We reviewed two-dimensional echocardiography and color flow Doppler assessment of both aortic stenosis and MV regurgitation severity in 30 patients. Patients with previous MV surgery, organic MV disease, occlusive carotid artery disease, ejection fraction < 50%, and coexisting significant AV regurgitation were excluded. Preoperatively, MV regurgitation was mild in 23 patients (77%) and moderate in 7 (23%); in no patient was the condition severe. All patients had severe atrial stenosis (peak average aortic gradient was 86  ± 22 mmHg in the mild MV regurgitation group, and 83 ± 26 mmHg in the moderate group). The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of MV regurgitation (associated mild, and moderate). Group 2, with moderate MV regurgitation, was the most problematic in terms of decision making for concomitant MV surgery. Therefore, additional assessment of several parameters was required.

Results: There was a significant decrease in MV regurgitation area (7.6 ± 1.9 vs. 3.0 ± 1.2 cm2, P £ 0.012) and percent (28 ± 5% vs. 12 ± 6%, P £ 0.001) between pre- and postoperative evaluation. Thus, the severity of the condition in all patients with moderate MV regurgitation decreased after AV replacement; in the mild group it remained unchanged in 53% or improved in 47%. There was no association between the preoperative gradient on the aortic valve and the degree of MV regurgitation.

Conclusions: In our population of patients with severe atrial stenosis there were no patients with coexisting severe MV regurgitation. The decision to repair or replace a severely leaking mitral valve is an easy one, as in mild MV regurgitation. The clinical problem often presents in patients with severe aortic stenosis and moderate MV regurgitation. We believe that additional MV surgery is not necessary, at least in patients with preserved left ventricular function and without organic MV disease.






[1] MV = mitral valve



[2] AV = aortic valve


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