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עמוד בית
Tue, 27.02.24

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March 2022
Inbar Nardi-Agmon MD MPH, Alona Zer MD, Yuri Peysakhovich MD, Ili Margalit MD, Ran Kornowski MD, Nir Peled MD PhD, and Zaza Iakobishvili MD PhD

Background: No specific clinical or histological factors are recognized to be associated with the development of pericardial effusion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) other than a metastatic disease.

Objectives: To assess whether specific clinical and histological features are associated with development of pericardial effusion in patients with NSCLC.

Methods: A consecutive cohort of patients with NSCLC who presented with symptomatic pericardial effusion 2014–2017 was compared to a control group of patients with advanced NSCLC without pericardial effusion.

Results: The 27 patients in the effusion group were generally younger, more often female, and with a higher percentage of never-smokers, compared to the 54 patients of the control group. Epidermal growth factor receptor/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EGFR/ALK) mutation tumors were found in 48% of patients in the effusion group vs. 25% in the control group. In the multivariate analysis, the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for the development of pericardial effusion in patients with somatic mutations was significantly higher compared to wild type tumors (OR 2.65, 95% confidence interval 1.00–7.00). However, a suspected association between pericardial effusion and mutation status was found to be confounded by age. While a high rate of recurrence was observed when pericardiocentesis was initially performed (9/17, 53%), no recurrence was documented when pericardial window procedure was performed (total of 17 patients).

Conclusions: Patients with EGFR/ALK mutations may be at higher risk for the development of pericardial effusion; therefore, attending physicians need to be aware and have a high index of clinical suspicion

July 2020
Osnat Itzhaki Ben Zadok MD MSc, Daniel Murninkas MD, Zaza Iakobishvili MD PhD, Henri Jino MD, Esther Yohananov RN, Shlomo Birkenfeld MD and David Hasdai MD

Background: Heart failure (HF) patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are frequently treated with sub-optimal doses of angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors (ACE-Is), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and beta blockers (BBs).

Objectives: To determine factors associated with attaining upper-range doses in patients with HFrEF.

Methods: We examined treatment in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% in a community-based, dedicated heart-failure clinic. Upper-range doses were defined as ≥ 75% of target recommended doses by heart failure society guidelines.

Results: The majority of the 215 patients were men (82%); median age at presentation 73 years (interquartile range [IQR] 65–78) and LVEF of 30% (IQR 25–35%). Following the up-titration program, 41% and 35% of patients achieved upper-range doses of ACE-Is/ARBs and BBs, respectively. Higher body mass index (BMI) was the only parameter found to be associated with achieving upper-range doses of ACE-I/ARBs (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.05–1.22, P = 0.001). More patients achieved this target as BMI increased, with a sharp decline in the highest obesity category (BMI ≥ 40 m2/kg). Attaining upper-range doses of BBs was associated with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR 2.6, 95%CI 1.34–5.19, P = 0.005); women were associated with attaining lower BBs doses (OR 0.34, 95%CI 0.13–0.90, P = 0.031).

Conclusions: Achieving upper-range doses of ACE-Is/ARBs and BBs in HFrEF outpatients in a treatment up-titration program were associated with greater BMI and DM, respectively. These findings may serve as benchmarks for up-titration programs.

February 2020
Lev Freidkin MD, Uri Landes MD, Nili Schamroth Pravda MD, Dan Aravot MD, Ran Kornowski MD, Zaza Iakobishvili MD and Aviv Mager MD

Background: Post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) is a major cause of pericarditis, yet data on the risk of recurrence are limited, and the impact of steroids and colchicine in this context is unknown.

Objectives: To examine the effect of prednisone and colchicine on the rate of recurrence of PPS.

Methods: Medical files of patients diagnosed with PPS were reviewed to extract demographic, echocardiographic, X-ray imaging, and follow-up data.

Results: The study comprised 132 patients (57% men), aged 27–86 years. Medical treatment included prednisone in 80 patients, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in 41 patients, colchicine monotherapy in 2 patients, and no anti-inflammatory therapy in 9 patients. Fifty-nine patients were given colchicine for prevention of recurrence. The patients were followed for 5–110 months (median 64 months). Recurrent episodes occurred in 15 patients (11.4%), 10 patients had a single episode, 4 patients had two episodes, and one patient had three episodes. The rate of recurrence was lower in patients receiving colchicine compared to patients who did not (8.5% vs. 13.7%), and in patients not receiving vs. receiving prednisone (7.7% vs. 13.8%) but the differences were non-significant. Twenty-three patients died and there were no recurrence-related deaths.

Conclusions: The rate of recurrence after PPS is low and multiple recurrences are rare. The survival of patients with recurrent PPS is excellent. Prednisone pre-treatment was associated with a numerically higher rate of recurrence and colchicine treatment with a numerically lower rate, but the differences were non-significant.

November 2019
Aviv Mager MD, Yoav Hammer MD, Hadas Ofek MD, Ilana Kedmi PhD, Zaza Iakobishvili MD and Ran Kornowski MD

Background: The frequency of increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the time course of evolution of their levels in patients with acute idiopathic pericarditis (AIP) are not well established.

Objective: To assess the time course of evolution of hs-CRP levels and the possible clinical significance of maximal hs-CRP levels in patients with AIP

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of 241 patients admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of AIP between March 2006 and March 2017. Data on demographics, time of symptom onset, laboratory and imaging findings, and outcome were collected.

Results: Data on serum hs-CRP levels were available for 225 patients (age 18–89 years, 181 men). Fever, pleural effusion, and age were independently associated with hs-CRP levels. Major cardiac complications (MCC) (death, cardiac tamponade, cardiogenic shock, large pericardial effusion, ventricular tachycardia, pericardiocentesis, or pericardiectomy) were more common in patients with hs-CRP levels above the median compared to those below (21.2% vs. 4.5%, respectively, P < 0.001). Hs-CRP levels were independently associated with MCC (odds ratio [OR] 1.071, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.016–1.130, P = 0.011). Hs-CRP levels were elevated in 76.0%, 92.3% and 96.0% of the patients tested <6 hours, 7-12 hours, and >12 hours of symptom onset, respectively (P = 0.003). The frequency of elevated hs-CRP among patients tested > 24 hours was 98.1%.

Conclusions: Hs-CRP levels rise rapidly among patients with AIP. Maximal hs-CRP levels are associated with MCC. A normal hs-CRP level is rare among patients tested > 24 hours of symptom onset.

July 2018
Avishay Elis MD, David Pereg MD, Zaza Iakobishvili MD, Dikla Geva PhD and Ilan Goldenberg MD

Background: A patient`s individual chance of being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease can be determined by risk scores.

Objectives: To determine the risk score profiles of patients presenting with a first acute coronary event according to pre-admission risk factors and to evaluate its association with long-term mortality.

Methods: The research was based on a retrospective study of a cohort from the 2010 and 2013 Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys (ACSIS). Inclusion criteria included first event and no history of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease risk equivalent. The Framingham Risk Score, the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/ (ACC/AHA) risk calculator were computed for each patient. The risk profile of each patients was determined by the three scores. The prognostic value of each score for 5 year survival was evaluated.

Results: The study population comprised 1338 patients enrolled in the prospective ACSIS survey. The ACC/AHA score was the most accurate in identifying patients as high risk based on pre-admission risk factors (73% of the subjects). The Framingham algorithm identified 53%, whereas SCORE recognized only 4%. After multivariate adjustment for clinical factors at presentation, we found that no scores were independently associated with 5 year mortality following the first acute coronary event.

Conclusions: Patients with first acute coronary event had a higher pre-admission risk scores according to the ACC/AHA risk algorithm. No risk scores were independently associated with 5 year survival after an event.

May 2018
Roman Nevzorov MD, Avital Porter MD, Shanie Mostov DVM, Shirit Kazum MD, Alon Eisen MD, Gustavo Goldenberg MD, Zaza Iakobishvili MD, Jairo Kusniec MD, Gregory Golovchiner MD, Boris Strasberg MD and Moti Haim MD

Background: Gender-related differences (GRD) exist in the outcome of patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).

Objectives: To assess GRD in patients who underwent CRT.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of 178 patients who were implanted with a CRT in a tertiary center 2005–2009 was analyzed. Primary outcome was 1 year mortality. Secondary endpoints were readmission and complication rates.

Results: No statistically significant difference was found in 1 year mortality rates (14.6% males vs. 11.8% females, P = 0.7) or in readmission rate (50.7% vs. 41.2%, P = 0.3). The complication rate was only numerically higher in women (14.7% vs. 5.6%, P = 0.09). Men more often had CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D) implants (63.2% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.003) and had a higher rate of ischemic cardiomyopathy (79.2% vs. 38.2%, P < 0.001). There was a trend to higher incidence of ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia in men before CRT implantation (29.9% vs. 14.7%, P = 0.07%). A higher proportion of men upgraded from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) to CRT-D, 20.8% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.047. On multivariate model, chronic renal failure was an independent predictor of 1 year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 3.6; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.4–9.5), CRT-D had a protective effect compared to CRT-pacemaker (HR 0.3, 95%CI 0.12–0.81).

Conclusions: No GRD was found in 1 year mortality or readmission rates in patients treated with CRT. There was a trend toward a higher complication rate in females. Men were implanted more often with CRT-D and more frequently underwent upgrading of ICD to CRT-D.


July 2016
Yishay Wasserstrum MD, Pia Raanani MD, Ran Kornowski MD and Zaza Iakobishvili MD PhD
February 2016
Shirit Kazum MD, Alon Eisen MD, Eli I. Lev MD, Zaza Iakobishvili MD, Alejandro Solodky MD, David Hasdai MD, Ran Kornowski MD and Aviv Mager MD

Background: Concomitant carotid artery disease (CaAD) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with worse cardiac and neurologic outcomes. The reported prevalence and risk factors for concomitant CaAD in CAD patients varied among previous studies. 

Objectives: To examine these factors in ambulatory patients with CAD and well-documented cholesterol levels treated with cholesterol-lowering medications. 

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data from 325 unselected patients with CAD (89 women, mean age 68.8 ± 9.9 years) undergoing routine evaluation at the coronary clinic of our hospital. 

Results: The low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was < 100 mg/dl in 292 patients (90%). Age at onset of CAD symptoms was 59.4 ± 10.8 years. Carotid stenosis ≥ 50% was seen in 83 patients (25.5%) and between 30% and 49% in 55 patients (17%) (duplex method). Carotid stenosis was significantly associated with hypertension (P = 0.032), peripheral arterial disease (P = 0.002) and number of coronary arteries with ≥ 50% stenosis (P = 0.002), and showed a borderline association with age at CAD onset (P = 0.062) and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.053). On linear regression analysis, independent predictors of CaAD were peripheral vascular disease (OR 3.186, 95%CI 1.403–7.236, P = 0.006), number of coronary arteries with ≥ 50% stenosis (OR 1.543, 95%CI 1.136–2.095, P = 0.005), and age at CAD onset (OR 1.028, 95%CI 1.002–1.054, P = 0.003). None of the variables studied predicted freedom from CaAD. 

Conclusions: Carotid atherosclerosis is very common in stable ambulatory patients with CAD regularly taking statins. The risk is higher in patients with peripheral arterial disease, a greater number of involved coronary arteries, and older age at onset of CAD. 


October 2015
Zaza Iakobishvili MD PhD, Adaya Weissler MD, Kiril Buturlin MD, Gustavo Goldenberg MD, Boris Strassberg MD, Ruth Tur MD and David Hasdai MD FESC

Background: The kinetics of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) levels after elective, biphasic, direct-current cardioversion for persistent atrial fibrillation/flutter remains unknown.

Methods: We examined hs-cTnT kinetics in 24 patients at baseline and at 2, 6 and 24 hours post-cardioversion, and again at 7 and 30 days. We also examined levels of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).

Results: Median (25th, 75th interquartiles) baseline hs-cTnT concentration was 19.8 (10.4, 35.2) ng/L with 14 patients presenting with levels above the 99th percentile (13 ng/L). Hs-cTnT levels did not change significantly over time although they tended to decrease by 30 days, 18.8 ng/L (12.5, 23.3). There was no significant rise in other markers of myocardial injury. Similarly, BNP and hs-CRP levels were elevated at baseline and tended to decrease over time.

Conclusions: Patients with persistent atrial fibrillation/flutter have elevated hs-cTnT levels, as part of a general rise in biomarkers such as BNP and hs-CRP, without a further rise after cardioversion. After cardioversion, there is a gradual non-significant decrease in biomarker levels over time, and thus a rise in hs-cTnT levels should not be attributed to cardioversion. 


December 2004
Z. Iakobishvili, J. Kusniec, A. Mazur, A. Battler and B. Strasberg

Background: Device replacement or revision may constitute 25% of pacemaker procedures. In patients needing pacemaker system replacement the usual approach is from the ipsilateral side of the previous system. In cases where the contralateral side is used the previous pulse generator is removed.

Objective: To test the feasibility of implanting a new system in the contralateral side without the removal of the old system.

Methods: We present 10 patients, age range 30–88 (median 73), with clinical indication of pacemaker replacement where the contralateral side was used. In eight patients the replacement was lead-related, and in the remaining two was due to other clinical indications. In all cases the ipsilateral approach was felt to be contraindicated because of local vein and/or pocket complications. Following the new pacemaker implantation the old system was reprogrammed at the lowest rate, lowest output and highest sensitivity.

Results: All patients underwent uneventful implantation. Post-surgery monitoring and Holter recordings failed to show any interference of the old system.

Conclusions: In clinically indicated cases it is feasible to implant a new device in the contralateral side without removing the old pulse generator, thereby avoiding an additional surgical procedure and reducing periprocedural complications.

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