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עמוד בית
Fri, 31.05.24

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June 2023
Yael Laitman MSc, Rinat Bernstein-Molho MD, Talia Golan MD, Eitan Friedman MD PhD

Germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in the RET proto-oncogene (OMIM 164761) are associated with a diverse phenotype based on the type of PV. Gain-of-function (GOF) PVs are associated with the highly penetrant multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2-OMIM 171400), which are hallmarked by an increased risk for developing medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid adenomas. Loss-of-function (LOF) RET PVs are associated with incompletely penetrant Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR OMIM 142623), which are pathologically characterized by the absence of enteric ganglia affecting the distal colon and clinically manifest as neonatal intestinal obstruction. Despite anecdotal reports of familial clustering of neoplasms in HSCR families, mostly MEN2-associated tumors [1,2], HSCR is not considered to be associated with an increased risk for developing cancer [3]. We report on a family with an unusual multigenerational solid tumor phenotype and severe HSCR phenotype with a LOF RET PV.

June 2017
Hagit Schayek PhD, Yael Laitman MSc, Lior H Katz MD, Elon Pras MD, Liat Ries-Levavi PhD, Frida Barak MD and Eitan Friedman MD PhD

Background: Biallelic BLM gene mutation carriers are at an increased risk for cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether heterozygous BLM gene mutations confer an increased cancer risk remains controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate CRC and endometrial cancer risk in BLM heterozygous mutation carriers.

Methods:
Jewish Ashkenazim at high risk for colon or endometrial cancer and endometrial cancer cases unselected for family history were genotyped for the BLMAsh predominant mutation.

Results: Overall, 243 high-risk individuals were included: 97 men CRC patients (55.12 ± 12.3 years at diagnosis), 109 women with CRC (56.5 ± 13.7 years), 32 women with endometrial cancer (58.25 ± 13.4 years) and 5 women with both CRC and endometrial cancer. In addition, 120 unselected Ashkenazi women with endometrial cancer (64.2 ± 11.58 years) were genotyped. The BLMAsh mutation was present in 4/243 (1.65%) high-risk patients; 2 CRC (0.97%) 2 endometrial cancer (5.4%), and 1/120 unselected endometrial cancer patients (0.84%). Notably, in high-risk cases, BLMAsh mutation carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (for CRC 47.5 ± 7.8 years; P = 0.32 ; endometrial cancer 49.5 ± 7.7 years; P = 0.36) compared with non-carriers.

Conclusions: Ashkenazi high risk CRC/endometrial cancer, and women with endometrial cancer have a higher rate of BLMAsh heterozygous mutation compared with the general population. BLMAsh heterozygous mutation carriers are diagnosed with CRC and endometrial cancer at a younger age compared with non-carriers. These observations should be validated and the possible clinical implications assessed.

November 2007
Y. Laitman, B. Kaufmann, E. Levy Lahad, M.Z. Papa and E. Friedman

Background: Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes account for only 20–40% of familial breast cancer cases. The CHEK2 gene encodes a checkpoint kinase, involved in response to DNA damage, and hence is a candidate gene for breast cancer susceptibility. Indeed, the CHEK2*1100delC truncating mutation was reported in a subset of mostly North European breast cancer families. The rate of the CHEK2*1100delC variant in the Ashkenazi* Jewish population was reported to be 0.3%.

Objectives: To evaluate whether CHEK2 germline mutations contribute to a breast cancer predisposition in Ashkenazi-Jewish high risk families.

Methods: High risk Ashkenazi Jewish women, none of whom was a carrier of the predominant Jewish mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2, were genotyped for germline mutations in the CHEK2 gene by exon-specific polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of abnormally migrating fragments.

Results: Overall, 172 high risk women were genotyped: 75 (43.6%) with breast cancer (average age at diagnosis 49.6 ± 9.6 years, mean ± SD) and 97 asymptomatic individuals (age at counseling 48.3 ± 8.2 years). No truncating mutations were noted and four previously described missense mutations were detected (R3W 1.2%, I157T 1.2%, R180C 0.6% and S428F 5%), one silent polymorphism (E84E 20.5%) and one novel missense mutation (Y424H 1.2%). Segregation analysis of the I157T and S428F mutations (shown to affect protein function) with the cancer phenotype showed concordance for the CHK2*I157T mutation, as did two of three families with the CHK2*S428F mutation.

Conclusions: CHEK2 missense mutations may contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in Ashkenazi Jews.

 






*  Of East European descent


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