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עמוד בית
Sun, 25.02.24

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November 2023
Ibrahim Osman MD, Alaa Atamna MD, Avishay Elis MD

Background: Low-risk venous thromboembolism (VTE) patients are advised to be discharged from the emergency department (ED) on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) treatment. There is no data on whether this recommendation is followed in Israel.

Objectives: To characterize newly diagnosed VTE patients who were discharged from the ED, their anticoagulation treatment at the ED, the recommended discharge protocol, and patient adherence.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, which included all newly diagnosed VTE patients who were discharged from the ED. Collected data included demographic and clinical background; anticoagulation treatment at the ED, recommended discharge protocol and its subsequent adherence, patient subsequent, recommended hematological evaluation, and adverse events.

Results: The study group included 443 patients, 89% with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Approximately three-quarters were treated with anticoagulants in the ED, 98% with enoxaparin. At discharge, anticoagulants were recommended for all; 49% continued enoxaparin, 47% DOACs, and 4% warfarin. After 4 weeks, 67% were treated with DOACs, 22% with enoxaparin, 5% with warfarin. Approximately 6% discontinued all treatment. After 12 weeks, 90% of the patients who were taking DOACs adhered to the protocol, whereas only 70% and 50% among the enoxaparin and warfarin users, respectively, did. Only 56% were referred for hematological evaluation. The 12-week rate of adverse reactions was approximately 2%. The use of DOACs and the recommendation for further hematological evaluation increased over time.

Conclusions: Clinician training regarding discharge of VTE patients from the ED should continue.

February 2023
Shivtia Trop-Steinberg PhD, Eliyahu M. Heifetz PhD, Yehudit Azar PhD, Irit Kafka MD, Amir Weintraub MD, Michael Gal MD PhD

Background: Omega-3 fatty acids promote fertility in males and females and constitute an important factor in the normal development of the fetus.

Objectives: We investigated the effect of omega-3 supplements during ovulation induction treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-related infertility.

Methods: A randomized, double-blind study was conducted for 60 treatment cycles in 34 women with PCOS-related oligo/anovulation referred to the fertility clinic at the Bikur Cholim/Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, who underwent ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (50 mg). Seventeen women (mean age 33.9 ± 0.9 years) received omega-3 supplements (3 × 600 mg/day) and 17 received placebo capsules (mean age 32.7 ± 0.9 years) for a maximum of two cycles. We recorded their characteristics and data from their serial hormonal blood tests and ultrasound examinations. We also conducted both univariate and multivariate analyses. The primary endpoint was conception.

Results: There were clinical pregnancies in 8/30 (26.7%) treatment cycles for women receiving omega-3 supplements versus 4/30 (13.3%) cycles with placebo. Among overweight/obese women (body mass index [BMI] 25–35), there were clinical pregnancies in 8/27 cycles (29.6%) versus 1/19 (5.3%) with placebo (P < 0.04). For overweight/obese PCOS women, omega-3, lower BMI rates, and higher values of the endometrium’s thickness increased the odds of becoming pregnant. No harmful side effects from the omega-3 treatment were reported.

Conclusions: Omega-3 supplements demonstrated beneficial effects for fertility in women diagnosed with PCOS. Among the overweight/obese participants, the increased clinical pregnancy rate was significant.

November 2022
Lior Fisher MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Orly Goitein MD

Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) refers to acute, subacute, or chronic thrombosis and occlusion of the mesenteric veins. MVT is an uncommon disorder, with an estimated incidence of is 2.7 per 100,000 patient-years. It accounts for 1 in 5000 to 15,000 inpatient admissions [1,2].

August 2022
Nir Tsur MD, Omri Frig BSc, Orna Steinberg-Shemer MD, Hannah Tamary MD, Noga Kurman MD, Aviram Mizrachi MD, and Aron Popovtzer MD

Background: Recent studies show a high risk of developing malignancy in patients with Fanconi anemia. The most common solid tumor in this condition is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and there is often uncertainty and about disease behavior as well as chemotherapy and radiation response.

Objectives: To describe and characterize HNSCC among Fanconi anemia patients on the Israeli Fanconi Registry

Methods: Our study population included patients in Israel's inherited bone marrow failure registry who were diagnosed with Fanconi anemia between1980 and 2016. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient charts.

Results: From the collected data, HNSCC was confirmed in 6/111 (5.4%) Fanconi anemia patients; 1 (17%) had classic HNSCC risk factors of tobacco abuse and 4 (56%) had undergone primary surgery. The 3 (50%) receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy had mild side effects, while half developed metachronous primary malignancy, and all developed > 2 primary malignancies. The overall median survival of the patients in our study was 14 (0.5–57) months.

Conclusions: Fanconi anemia patients have a very high risk of developing HNSCC. Proactive screening for malignancies is needed for the head and neck regions. We also found that chemoradiotherapy can be used safely in high-stage cancers.

December 2021
Galit Hirsh-Yechezkel PhD, Angela Chetrit MHA, Sivan Ben Avraham MSc, Abed Agbarya MD, Alexander Yakobson MD, Noam Asna MD, Gil Bar-Sela MD, Irit Ben-Aharon MD PhD, Noa Efrat Ben-Baruch MD, Raanan Berger MD PhD, Ronen Brenner MD, Maya Gottfried MD, Shani Paluch-Shimon MBBS MSc, Raphael Pfeffer MD, Aron Popovtzer MD, Larisa Ryvo MD, Valeriya Semenisty MD, Ayelet Shai MD PhD, Katerina Shulman MD, Jamal Zidan MD, and Ido Wolf MD

Background: The increased susceptibility of cancer patients to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infections and complications calls for special precautions while treating cancer patients during COVID-19 pandemics. Thus, oncology departments have had to implement a wide array of prevention measures.

Objectives: To address issues associated with cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic and to assess the implementation of measures aimed at containment of COVID-19 diffusion while allowing continuation of quality cancer care.

Methods: A national survey among oncology departments in Israel was conducted between 12 April 2020 and 14 April 2020. Eighteen heads of hospital-based oncology departments completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their institute's preparedness for treatment of cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results: In this national survey, prevention measures against COVID-19 spread were taken prior to patients' arrival and at arrival or while staying in the departments. Most participants (78–89%) reported using a quick triage of patients and caregivers prior to their entrance to the oncology units, limiting the entrance of caregivers, and reducing unnecessary visits to the clinic. Switching to oral therapies rather than intravenous ones when possible was considered by 82% and shortage in personal protective equipment was reported by five (28%) heads of oncology departments. Some differences between large and small/medium sized medical centers were observed regarding issues related to COVID-19 containment measures and changes in treatment.

Conclusions: Oncology departments in Israel were able to prepare and adapt their services to guidelines and requirements related to the COVID-19 pandemic with little harm to their treatment capacity

October 2021
Andrei Braester MD, Galia Stemer MD, Sahar Khouri MD, Bennidor Raviv MD, and Masad Barhoum MD

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious disease, which demands a fast accurate diagnosis to begin suitable treatment. It presents a major problem in the emergency department (ED), and its confirmation requires adequate evaluation.

Objectives: To evaluate a potential role of mean platelet volume (MPV) in differentiating VTE from other potential diagnosis in patients with suspected VTE.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-controlled study of 440 consecutive patients who presented to the ED of our hospital with clinical VTE, but only 316 with proven VTE. A control group was composed of patients (124) who presented with clinical VTE but without proven VTE. We checked the MPV value in all 440 patients and the correlation with VTE occurrence in the study group vs. control group.

Results: Statistical analysis of the acquired results indicated that MPV value could not aid in determining the difference of real VTE vs. patients with VTE-like clinical picture presenting to the ED. We found an inverse correlation between MPV value and proven VTE, in contrast to most researchers who have studied the same issue.

Conclusions: Although MPV can be a useful diagnostic marker in many diseases, we found no definite association between low MPV and VTE

January 2018
Avishag Laish-Farkash MD PhD, Avi Sabbag MD, Michael Glikson MD, Aharon Glick MD, Vladimir Khalameizer MD, Amos Katz MD and Yoav Michowitz MD

Background: Multiform fascicular tachycardia (FT) was recently described as a ventricular tachycardia (VT) that has a reentrant mechanism using multiple fascicular branches and produces alternate fascicular VT forms. Ablating the respective fascicle may cause a change in the reentrant circuit resulting in a change in morphology. Ablation of the septal fascicle is crucial for successful treatment.

Objectives: To describe four cases of FT in which ablation induced a change in QRS morphologies and aggravated clinical course.

Methods: Four out of 57 consecutive FT cases at three institutions were retrospectively analyzed and found to involve multiform FT. These cases underwent electrophysiological study, fascicular potential mapping, and electroanatomical mapping. All patients initially had FT with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and superior axis morphology.

Results: Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) targeting the distal left posterior fascicle (LPF) resulted in a second VT with an RBBB-inferior axis morphology that sometimes became faster and/or incessant and/or verapamil-refractory in characteristics. RFCA in the upper septum abolished the second VT with no complications and uneventful long-term follow-up.

Conclusions: The change in FT morphology during ablation may be associated with a change in clinical course when shifting from one route to another and may aggravate symptoms. Targeting of the proximal conduction system (such as bifurcation, LPF, left anterior fascicle, high septal/auxiliary pathway) may serve to solve this problem.

Jaber Mustafa MD, Ilan Asher MD and Zev Sthoeger MD

Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is defined as thrombosis of the deep venous system (subclavian, axillary, brachial, ulnar, and radial veins), which drains the upper extremities. It can be caused by thoracic outlet anatomic obstruction, such as Paget–Schroetter syndrome, (primary) or by central intravenous catheters (secondary). UEDVT may be asymptomatic or present with acute severe pain and arm swelling. Clinical suspicion should be confirmed by diagnostic imaging procedures such as duplex ultrasound, computed tomography scan, or magnetic resonance imaging. UEDVT is managed by anticoagulant treatment. In addition to that, early thrombolysis aimed at preventing post-deep vein thrombosis syndrome and thoracic outlet decompression surgery should be given to patients with primary UEDVT. Anticoagulation without thrombolysis is the treatment of choice for patients with catheter-related thrombosis. Mandatory functioning catheters can remain in place with anticoagulant treatment. All other catheters should be immediately removed. The management of patients with UEDVT requires an experience multidisciplinary team comprised of internists, radiologists, hematologists, and vascular surgeons. Understanding the risk factors for the development of UEDVT, the diagnostic procedures, and the treatment modalities will improve the outcome of those patients.

January 2017
Gustavo Goldenberg MD, Tamir Bental MD, Udi Kadmon MD, Ronit Zabarsky MD, Jairo Kusnick MD, Alon Barsheshet MD, Gregory Golovchiner MD and Boris Strasberg MD

Background: Syncope prognosis varies widely: 1 year mortality may range from 0% in the case of vasovagal events up to 30% in the presence of heart disease. 

Objectives: To assess the outcomes and prognosis of patients with implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) and indication of primary prevention and compare patients presenting with or without prior syncope.

Methods: We reviewed the charts of 75 patients who underwent ICD implantation with the indication of primary prevention and history of syncope and compared them to a control group of 80 patients without prior syncope. We assessed the number of ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), shock, anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP), and death in each group during the follow-up.

Results: Mean follow-up was 893 days (810–976, 95% confidence interval) (no difference between groups). Patients with prior syncope had a higher ejection fraction (EF) (35.5 ± 12.6 vs. 31.4 ± 8.76, P = 0.02), more episodes of VT (21.3% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.001) and VF (8% vs. 0%, P = 0.01) and also received more electric shocks (18.7% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.004) and ATP (17.3% vs. 6.2%, P = 0.031). There were no differences in inappropriate shocks (6.7% vs. 5%, P = 0.74), in cardiovascular mortality (cumulative 5 year estimate 29.9% vs. 32.2% P = 0.97) and any death (cumulative 5 year estimate 38.1% vs. 48.9% P = 0.18) during the follow-up.

Conclusions: Syncopal patients before ICD implantation seem to have more episodes of VT/VF and shock or ATP. No mortality differences were observed

 

July 2016
Hussein Sliman MD, Keren Zissman MD, Jacob Goldstein MD, Moshe Y. Flugelman MD and Yaron Hellman MD
June 2016
Gustavo Goldenberg MD, Tamir Bental MD, Udi Kadmon MD, Ronit Zabarsky MD, Jairo Kusnick MD, Alon Barsheshet MD, Gregory Golovchiner MD and Boris Strasberg MD

Background: Syncope is a common clinical condition spanning from benign to life-threatening diseases. There is sparse information on the outcomes of syncopal patients who received an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). 

Objectives: To assess the outcomes and prognosis of patients who underwent implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) implantation for primary prevention of SCD and compare them to patients who presented with or without prior syncope.

Methods: We compared the medical records of 75 patients who underwent ICD implantation for primary prevention of SCD and history of syncope to those of a similar group of 80 patients without prior syncope. We assessed the episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), shock, anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) and mortality in each group during follow-up.

Results: Mean follow-up was 893 days (810–976, 95%CI) (no difference between groups). There was no significant difference in gender or age. Patients with prior syncope had a higher ejection fraction rate (35.5 ± 12.6 vs. 31.4 ± 8.76, P = 0.02), experienced more episodes of VT (21.3% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.001) and VF (8% vs. 0%, P = 0.01), and received more electric shocks (18.7% vs. 3.8%, P = 0.004) and ATP (17.3% vs. 6.2%, P = 0.031). There were no differences in inappropriate shocks (6.7% vs. 5%, P = 0.74), cardiovascular mortality (cumulative 5 year estimate 29.9% vs. 32.2%, P = 0.97) and any death (cumulative 5 year estimate 38.1% vs. 48.9%, P = 0.18).

Conclusions: Patients presenting with syncope before ICD implantation seemed to have more episodes of VT/VF and shock or ATP. No differences in mortality were observed

 

Noam Oz MD, Danny Alon MD, Chava Chezar-Azerrad MD, Lisa Cooper MD, Yochai Levi MD, Shmuel Fuchs MD and Gideon Y. Stein MD PhD

Background: Prophylaxis for hospitalized venous-thromboembolic events (VTEs) is frequently underutilized, in part due to lack of a simple risk assessment model (RAM). 

Objectives: To compare patient selection and administration of VTE prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2008 guidelines versus the newer 2012 guidelines, and assess the feasibility of developing simpler local RAMs.

Methods: We conducted a prospective assessment of VTE risk among 300 unselected consecutive patients admitted to a medical hospital ward, using the 2008 and 2012 ACCP guidelines. The frequency and relative weight of each risk factor in the 2012 ACCP guidelines were used to develop a local VTE RAM.

Results: VTE prophylaxis was indicated by the 2008 and 2012 ACCP guidelines in 40% and 42% of the cohort respectively, and was administered in 28% and 26% of eligible patients, respectively. Contraindication to VTE prophylaxis was found in 29% of patients according to both guidelines. In comparison to the 2008 guidelines, sensitivity and specificity of the 2012 guidelines were 96% and 88%, respectively. A local RAM based on the following concise score, comprising age, malignancy and immobility, correctly identified 99% of at-risk patients based on the 2012 guidelines, with a sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 95%, respectively.

Conclusions: Both guidelines performed to a similar degree and were poorly implemented in daily practice. A simplified RAM accurately identified the vast majority of these eligible patients. The development of local RAMs is feasible and may result in higher utilization rates.

 

February 2016
Yuval Nachalon MD, Ohad Hilly MD, Karl Segal MD, Eyal Raveh MD, Dania Hirsch MD, Eyal Robenshtok MD, Ilan Shimon MD, Jacob Shvero MD, Carlos Benbassat MD and Aron Popovtzer MD

Background: Radiation exposure is a well-known risk factor for well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). However, disease characteristics, optimal treatment, time from exposure to disease appearance, and the effect on outcome of age at initial exposure have yet to be determined. 

Objectives: To identify the characteristics of radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma.

Methods: We retrieved the charts of all patients previously exposed to radiation who were diagnosed with WDTC between the years 1985 and 2013 in a tertiary referral center. 

Results: Forty-four patients were reviewed. Median time from radiation exposure to diagnosis was 23 years. These patients had higher rates of aerodigestive symptoms and distant metastases on presentation than seen in non-radiated patients. Patients who were exposed to radiation before age 15 years tended to develop the disease at a younger age but had a longer latency period (34.7 ± 15.3 vs. 16.3 ± 10 years, P < 0.001) and none had significantly higher rates of vocal cord palsy, hoarseness on presentation, or aggressive variants on histology compared to patients exposed to radiation at an older age. Disease-specific survival (DSS) was the same for both groups and were similar to that seen in the general population (95% 20 year DSS).

Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroid cancer has a more aggressive presentation and the age at exposure affects the presentation of disease. Nonetheless, appropriate treatment leads to a favorable prognosis.

 

Yigal Helviz MD, Ilia Dzigivker MD, David Raveh-Brawer MD, Moshe Hersch MD, Shoshana Zevin MD and Sharon Einav MD

Background: Enoxaparin is frequently used as prophylaxis for deep venous thrombosis in critically ill patients. 

Objectives: To evaluate three enoxaparin prophylactic regimens in critical care patients with and without administration of a vasopressor.

Methods: Patients admitted to intensive care units (general and post-cardiothoracic surgery) without renal failure received, once daily, a subcutaneous fixed dose of 40 mg enoxaparin, a subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin, or an intravenous dose of 0.5 mg/kg enoxaparin. Over 5 days anti-activated factor X levels were collected before the daily administration and 4 hours after the injection.

Results: Overall, 16 patients received the subcutaneous fixed dose, 15 received the subcutaneous weight-based dosage, and 8 received the dose intravenously. Around two-fifths (38%) of the patients received vasopressors. There was no difference between anti-activated factor X levels regarding vasopressor administration. However, in all three groups the levels were outside the recommended range of 0.1 IU/ml and 0.3 IU/ml.

Conclusions: Although not influenced by vasopressor administration, the enoxaparin regimens resulted in blood activity levels outside the recommended range.

 

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