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עמוד בית
Sat, 22.06.24

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March 2023
Itamar Feldman MD, Ramzi Kurd MD, Gideon Nesher MD, Mohamed Zaghal MD, Gabriel S. Breuer MD

Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve and has several causes. The hallmarks of clinical manifestation are pain on movement of the eyes and decreased vision. Typical optic neuritis is an idiopathic demyelinating condition that is often associated with multiple sclerosis, affects young women, is unilateral, and has a good prognosis.

January 2022
Ron Skorochod B MED Sc, Daniel Fink MD, Victoria Doviner MD, and Gideon Nesher MD
February 2021
Ron Skorochod BMED Sc, Yaakov Applbaum MD, Gideon Nesher MD, and Ariella Tvito MD
August 2016
Gabriel S. Breuer MD, Naama Bogot MD and Gideon Nesher MD
September 2015
Gabriel S. Breuer MD, Konstantin Reinus MD, Gideon Nesher MD and Gabriel Munter MD
July 2014
Gideon Nesher MD
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is considered to be a T cell-dependent disease. Autoantibodies have not consistently been found in GCA. The exception is antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA), which were found in 30–80% of GCA cases. Recently, efforts have been made to seek autoantibodies in GCA using newer methods of detection: serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning, and a proteomic approach. In these studies, lamin C (a nuclear envelope antigen) was recognized by antibodies in 32% of GCA sera and none of the controls. Other autoantigenic proteins were also identified: lamin A, vinculin (a cytoskeleton antigen), and annexin 5 (an endothelial protein). In a recent study, 92% of 36 patients with GCA and/or polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) had autoantibodies to a human ferritin peptide (the heavy chain N-terminal); 89% had antibodies to bacterial ferritin peptide of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The significance of these findings needs to be studied further. GCA may be a part of the newly described ASIA syndrome (autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants). A recent study from Italy reported 10 cases of GCA/PMR within 3 months of influenza vaccination. These comprised 50% of all cases of GCA/PMR diagnosed during the 6 year period of the study. Another 11 cases of GCA following influenza vaccinations were reported. GCA pathogenesis involves all branches of the immune system, including antigen-presenting cells, T cells and B cells, and autoantibody formation is not uncommon. GCA etiology remains unknown, but may be associated with exposure to bacterial or viral antigens.  
June 2013
G.S. Breuer, R. Nesher, K. Reinus and G. Nesher
 Background: In most cases of giant cell arteritis (GCA) the diagnosis is confirmed by temporal artery biopsy. Aside from the diagnostic purpose, histological parameters may serve as prognostic markers.

Objectives: To review positive temporal artery biopsiese of GCA in an attempt to correlate various histological parameters with clinical features, disease complications and outcome.

Methods: Positive biopsies from 65 GCA patients were randomly selected for review by a single pathologist. In each biopsy the following parameters were scored: intensity and location of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of giant cells and other cell types, fragmentation and calcification of the internal elastic lamina, intimal thickening, and presence of luminal thrombus. Clinical data were obtained from the patients’ charts. Intensity of the initial systemic inflammatory reaction (ISIR) at the time of diagnosis was scored by the presence of five parameters: fever, anemia, thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, and sedimentation rate > 100 mm/hr.

Results: In cases with bilateral positive biopsy (n=27), there was good correlation between the two sides regarding intensity of inflammation (r = 0.65, P < 0.001), location of the infiltrate (r = 0.7, P < 0.001), degree of intimal thickening (r = 0.54, P < 0.001), and presence of giant cells (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). The rate of corticosteroid discontinuation tended to be quicker in patients with inflammatory infiltrates confined mainly to the adventitia, but other histological parameters did not affect this rate.

Conclusions: Inflammatory infiltrates confined to the adventitia were associated with more neuro-ophthalmic ischemic manifestations, weak/moderate ISIR at the time of diagnosis, and faster rate of corticosteroid discontinuation. No association was found between other temporal artery biopsy histological parameters and clinical features of GCA patients.

 

December 2012
E. Ben-Chetrit, C. Chen-Shuali, E. Zimran, G. Munter and G. Nesher

Background: Frequent readmissions significantly contribute to health care costs as well as work load in internal medicine wards.

Objective: To develop a simple scoring method that includes basic demographic and medical characteristics of  elderly patients in internal medicine wards, which would allow prediction of readmission within 3 months of discharge.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of 496 hospitalized patients using data collected from discharge letters in the computerized archives. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed and factors that were significantly associated with readmission were selected to construct a scoring tool. Validity was assessed in a cohort of 200 patients.

Results: During a 2 year follow-up 292 patients were readmitted at least once within 3 months of discharge. Age 80 or older, any degree of impaired cognition, nursing home residence, congestive heart failure, and creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dl were found to be strong predictors of readmission. The presence of each variable was scored as 1. A score of 3 or higher in the derivation and validation cohorts corresponded with a positive predictive value of 80% and 67%, respectively, when evaluating the risk of rehospitalization.

Conclusions: We propose a practical, readily available five-item scoring tool that allows prediction of most unplanned readmissions within 3 months. The strength of this scoring tool, as compared with previously published scores, is its simplicity and straightforwardness.
 

March 2007
A. Brautbar, Y. Esyag, G.S Breuer, Y. Wiener-Well and G. Nesher

The human papillomavirus family of viruses causes a variety of benign, premalignant and malignant lesions in men and women. All cervical cancers are caused by HPV[1]. It is the leading cause of death from cancer in women in developing countries; every year some 493,000 women develop cervical cancer and 230,000 women die every year of this disease. The vaccine against HPV includes virus-like particles, composed of the major viral capsid protein of HPV without the carcinogenic genetic core. Large-scale studies have shown that the vaccine is tolerated well, leads to high antibody levels in both men and women, and prevents chronic HPV infection and its associated diseases. To achieve effective coverage the vaccine should be given prior to sexual debut. Introduction of the vaccine into specific countries, particularly Israel, should take into account the local incidence of cervical cancer as well as the increasing incidence of precancerous cervical lesions and genital warts, which reduce quality of life and are associated with considerable costs.

 

 







[1] HPV = human papillomavirus


September 1999
Gideon Nesher, MD, Hanan Gur, MD, Michael Ehrenfeld, MD, Alan Rubinow, MD and Moshe Sonnenblick, MD.
 Objectives: To evaluate whether the increasing incidence of temporal arteritis in Israel is associated with a changing clinical presentation.

Methods: The demographic data and clinical manifestations of 144 TA1 patients in this large multicenter study were recorded and compared with data obtained in a previous study.

Results: The patient population was older, with 24% ≥80 years compared to 6% in the previous study.  There was an increase in the number of nonspecific presenting symptoms, and less patients presented with the “classical” manifestations of headache (81% vs. 71%), fever (83% vs. 40%), jaw claudication (21% vs. 13%), and visual symptoms (47% vs. 24%). The median time from presentation to diagnosis was significantly reduced, from 5 to 1.5 months.

Conclusions: There were substantial changes in the clinical presentation of TA patients in Israel during 1980–95 compared to patients diagnosed prior to 1978. It is suggested that these changes may be attributed not only to the influence of aging of the population, but are due largely to increasing physician awareness to the spectrum of manifestations of TA, which leads to earlier diagnosis.

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1TA = temporal arteritis

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