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עמוד בית
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March 2021
Monica Goldberg-Murow MD, Zvi Steiner MD, Yaniv Lakovsky MD, Elena Dlugy MD, Arthur Baazov MD, Enrique Freud MD, and Inbal Samuk MD

Background: Pancreatic trauma is uncommon in pediatric patients and presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. While non-operative management (NOM) of minor pancreatic injuries is well accepted, the management of major pancreatic injuries remains controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate management strategies for major blunt pancreatic injury in children.

Methods: Data were retrospectively collected for all children treated for grade III or higher pancreatic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2015 at two medical centers. Data included demographics, mechanism of injury, laboratory and imaging studies, management strategy, clinical course, operative findings, and outcome.

Results: The cohort included seven boys and four girls aged 4–15 years old (median 9). Six patients had associated abdominal (mainly liver, n=3) injuries. The main mechanism of injury was bicycle (handlebar) trauma (n=6). Five patients had grade III injury and six had grade IV. The highest mean amylase level was recorded at 48 hours after injury (1418 U/L). Management strategies included conservative (n=5) and operative treatment (n=6): distal (n=3) and central (n=1) pancreatectomy, drainage only (n=2) based on the computed tomography findings and patient hemodynamic stability. Pseudocyst developed in all NOM patients (n=5) and two OM cases, and one patient developed a pancreatic fistula. There were no differences in average length of hospital stay.

Conclusions: NOM of high-grade blunt pancreatic injury in children may pose a higher risk of pseudocyst formation than OM, with a similar hospitalization time. However, pseudocyst is a relatively benign complication with a high rate of spontaneous resolution with no need for surgical intervention.

January 2020
Osher Cohen MD and Enrique Freud MD

Falling from a height accounts for 14.1% of all hospital admissions for traumatic injury. In 5% of cases, the injury is severe or critical, and in 1.5%, it is fatal. The dangers of falling have been recognized since time immemorial. Indeed, the Bible instructs us to build a parapet around the roof of our home so that, “…you may not bring the guilt of bloodshed on your house if someone falls from it” (Deuteronomy 22:8). This commandment highlights the relatively simple and practical means by which we can prevent falls. It is also one of a series of ethical laws that are presented to help us understand and obey the larger Biblical precepts of loving one’s neighbor and guarding the sanctity of life. The concept teaches us that it is the responsibility of all individuals to be cognizant of others and to avoid harming people through negligence or carelessness. The aim of this article is to explain the commandment to build a parapet in the context of the risk of falling from a height and to expand on its wider implications. The present work was prompted in part by the alarming increase in fatal and near-fatal accidents in Israel in two particular populations.

June 2018
Osher Cohen MD, Arthur Baazov MD, Inbal Samuk MD, Michael Schwarz MD, Dragan Kravarusic MD1 and Enrique Freud MD

Background: Wandering spleen is a rare entity that may pose a surgical emergency following torsion of the splenic vessels, mainly because of a delayed diagnosis. Complications after surgery for wandering spleen may necessitate emergency treatment.

Objectives: To describe the clinical course and treatment for children who underwent emergency surgeries for wandering spleen at a tertiary pediatric medical center over a 21 year period and to indicate the pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment as reflected by our experience and in the literature.

Methods: The database of a tertiary pediatric medical center was searched retrospectively for all children who underwent emergency treatment for wandering spleen between 1996 and 2017. Data were collected from the medical files. The relevant literature was reviewed.

Results: Of ten patients who underwent surgery for wandering spleen during the study period, five underwent seven emergency surgeries. One patient underwent surgery immediately at initial presentation. In the other four, surgical treatment was delayed either due to misdiagnosis or for repeated imaging studies to confirm the diagnosis. Emergency laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen in all patients; splenectomy was performed in two and the spleen was preserved in three. Four of the seven emergency operations were performed as the primary surgery and three were performed to treat complications.

Conclusions: Wandering spleen should ideally be treated on an elective or semi-elective basis. Surgical delays could be partially minimized by a high index of suspicion at diagnosis and by eliminating unnecessary and time-consuming repeated imaging studies.

November 2016
Efrat Avinadav MD, Anastasia Almog MD, Dragan Kravarusic MD, Emanuelle Seguier MD, Inbal Samuk MD, Adrianna Nika MD and Enrique Freud MD

Background: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is becoming a common tool for routine use in emergency medicine, anesthesiology and intensive care for diagnostic and interventional purposes. When a portable ultrasound device became available for the department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery at the Schneider's Children Medical Center of Israel, we added POCUS assessments to the physician's daily rounds. POCUS is performed by pediatric surgeons trained in basic ultrasonography skills. Starting September 2015 all POCUS examinations were documented. 

Objectives: To describe the current use, diagnostic and therapeutic impacts of POCUS in a department of pediatric and adolescent surgery. 

Methods: We conducted an observational study of all the documented POCUS procedures performed during a half-year period. Data regarding patient condition and the POCUS procedures were collected, as well as data on the use of other diagnostic modalities, mainly formal ultrasound exams (by radiologists) and computed tomography scans and their correlation with the POCUS assessment. 

Results: Fifty-one POCUS exams were performed during the study period, most of which served to define the presence and resolution of a collection – intraabdominal (34%) and subcutaneous (31%). Despite a high rate for formal diagnostic studies (65%), probably due to a relative lack of confidence of surgeons performing the POCUS exams during this initial period, most results (92%) were compatible. 

Conclusions: The ability and availability to perform multiple POCUS exams by the attending physician proved to be a valuable aide to the classical physical and laboratory examinations of surgical patients, and we predict its increasing use in quotidian practice. 

September 2005
D. Kravarusic, E. Dlugy, R. Steinberg, B. Paloi, A. Baazov, E. Feigin and E. Freud
 Background: The minimal access surgery revolution has only just begun to impact on pediatric surgery, thanks mainly to technologic advances and evidence of the benefits of minimally invasive procedures in this population.

Objectives: To review the current status of MAS[1] in a pediatric tertiary care center in Israel, in terms of feasibility, safety, and effect on standard practices.

Methods: We reviewed the files of all children who underwent a MAS procedure in our department during the period April 2002 to July 2004, and compared the findings with those of children treated by standard practices.

Results: A total of 301 procedures were performed in 271 patients: 107 thoracoscopic and 194 laparoscopic. There were no major intraoperative complications. The total conversion rate was 3.65%: 0 for thoracoscopy and 5.6% for laparoscopy (11/194). Twenty-four types of procedures were performed during the study period. The thoracoscopies accounted for 92.24% of all thoracic procedures in the department (107/116), and routine abdominal laparoscopic procedures replaced open surgery in 30–100% of cases (total 44.8%, 194/433).

Conclusions: MAS procedures appear to be safe for a wide range of indications in children. In our center they currently account for a significant percentage of pediatric surgeries. We suggest that the integration of MAS training in the residency programs of pediatric surgeons be made a major long-term goal. The creation of a pediatric MAS study group, which would allow for multi-institutional studies, is especially important in Israel where a relatively large number of pediatric surgery departments handle a small annual number of patients.

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[1] MAS = minimal access surgery

February 2000
Michael Schwarz MD, Gadi Horev MD, Enrique Freud MD, Nizza Ziv MD, Amir Blumenfeld MD, Ran Steinberg MD and Liora Kornreich MD

Background: Multiple organ injury in children is an increasingly frequent phenomenon in the modern emergency room. Adrenal hemorrhage associated with this type of trauma has received little attention in the past.

Objectives: Using computed tomography, we sought to determine the rate and nature of adrenal gland injury in children following blunt abdominal trauma due to motor vehicular accident.

Methods: A total of 121 children with blunt abdominal trauma were examined and total body CT was performed in cases of multi-organ trauma or severe neurological injury.

Results: Of all the children who presented with blunt abdominal trauma over a 51 month period, 6 (4.95%) had adrenal hemorrhage. In all cases only the right adrenal gland was affected. Coincidental injury to the chest and other abdominal organs was noted in 66.7% and 50% of patients, respectively.

Conclusions: Traumatic adrenal injury in the pediatric population may be more common than previously suspected. Widespread application of the more sophisticated imaging modalities available today will improve the detection of damage to the smaller organs in major collision injuries and will help in directing attention to the mechanism of trauma. 

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