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עמוד בית
Sat, 18.05.24

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January 2024
Yael Dreznik MD, Maya Paran MD, Efraim Bilavsky MD, Efrat Avinadav MD, Dragan Kravarusic MD

Background: The management of complicated appendicitis is inconclusive. Guidelines have not been established for the use of personalized antibiotic treatment.

Objectives: To investigate specific risk factors to consider during the initial first-choice antibiotic therapy in children with complicated appendicitis.

Methods: This study included all pediatric patients younger than 18 years of age who underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy during 2012–2022 at a single tertiary medical center.

Results: In total, 300 pediatric patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy due to complicated appendicitis. The patients were treated with ceftriaxone + metronidazole (CM). For 57 (19%) patients, the empirical treatment was changed to tazobactam/piperacillin (TP) due to resistant bacteria or clinical deterioration. The presence of generalized peritonitis during surgery and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels above 20 mg/L at admission were identified as risk factors for changing the antibiotic regimen from CM to TP.

Conclusions: Generalized peritonitis and CRP > 20 gr/L were highly correlated with changing the antibiotic regimen to TP. For such patients, initial treatment with TP may result in clinical improvement and shorter hospitalization. 

September 2021
Yulia Gendler RN PhD, Emmanuelle Seguier-Lipszyc MD, Ari Silbermintz MD, Moshe Hain MD, Yoram Stern MD, Dragan Kravarusic MD, Keren Politi MD, Gabriel Amir MD PhD, Jacob Katz MD, Yelena Zeitlin MD, Sylvia Grozovski MD, Yifat Nitzan SLP, Yuliana Eshel MHA, Adi Shimoni OTR, Yifat Fischer DVM, Dana Serfaty MSc, Tami Shnayderman BPT, Kian Assi BSW, Lior Barbash MBA, and Patrick Stafler MD

Background: Aerodigestive clinics are run by interdisciplinary medical and surgical teams, and provide complex care coordination and combined endoscopies.

Objectives: To describe the design and patient population of the first pediatric aerodigestive center in Israel.

Methods: A retrospective single-center cohort study was conducted describing patients followed in the aerodigestive clinic of Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel, a tertiary pediatric hospital, between its inception in January 2017 and June 2020.

Results: During the study period, 100 patients were seen at the combined respiratory and digestive (NoAM) clinic, with a total of 271 visits. Median age at first assessment was 29.5 months (range 3–216). Fifty-six patients (56%) had esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Thirty-nine patients had an identified genetic disorder, 28 had a primary airway abnormality, 28 were oxygen dependent, and 21 were born premature. Fifty-two patients underwent triple endoscopy, consisting of flexible bronchoscopy, rigid bronchoscopy, and gastroscopy. In 33 patients, esophageal dilatation was necessary. Six patients underwent posterior tracheopexy at a median of 6 months of age (range 5 days to 8 years) all with ensuing symptom improvement. The total mean parental satisfaction score on a Likert-type scale of 1–5 (5 = highest satisfaction) was 4.5.

Conclusions: A coordinated approach is required to provide effective care to the growing population of children with aerodigestive disorders. The cross fertilization between multiple disciplines offers a unique opportunity to develop high quality and innovative care. Outcome measures must be defined to objectively measure clinical benefit.

June 2018
Osher Cohen MD, Arthur Baazov MD, Inbal Samuk MD, Michael Schwarz MD, Dragan Kravarusic MD1 and Enrique Freud MD

Background: Wandering spleen is a rare entity that may pose a surgical emergency following torsion of the splenic vessels, mainly because of a delayed diagnosis. Complications after surgery for wandering spleen may necessitate emergency treatment.

Objectives: To describe the clinical course and treatment for children who underwent emergency surgeries for wandering spleen at a tertiary pediatric medical center over a 21 year period and to indicate the pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment as reflected by our experience and in the literature.

Methods: The database of a tertiary pediatric medical center was searched retrospectively for all children who underwent emergency treatment for wandering spleen between 1996 and 2017. Data were collected from the medical files. The relevant literature was reviewed.

Results: Of ten patients who underwent surgery for wandering spleen during the study period, five underwent seven emergency surgeries. One patient underwent surgery immediately at initial presentation. In the other four, surgical treatment was delayed either due to misdiagnosis or for repeated imaging studies to confirm the diagnosis. Emergency laparotomy revealed an ischemic spleen in all patients; splenectomy was performed in two and the spleen was preserved in three. Four of the seven emergency operations were performed as the primary surgery and three were performed to treat complications.

Conclusions: Wandering spleen should ideally be treated on an elective or semi-elective basis. Surgical delays could be partially minimized by a high index of suspicion at diagnosis and by eliminating unnecessary and time-consuming repeated imaging studies.

November 2016
Efrat Avinadav MD, Anastasia Almog MD, Dragan Kravarusic MD, Emanuelle Seguier MD, Inbal Samuk MD, Adrianna Nika MD and Enrique Freud MD

Background: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is becoming a common tool for routine use in emergency medicine, anesthesiology and intensive care for diagnostic and interventional purposes. When a portable ultrasound device became available for the department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery at the Schneider's Children Medical Center of Israel, we added POCUS assessments to the physician's daily rounds. POCUS is performed by pediatric surgeons trained in basic ultrasonography skills. Starting September 2015 all POCUS examinations were documented. 

Objectives: To describe the current use, diagnostic and therapeutic impacts of POCUS in a department of pediatric and adolescent surgery. 

Methods: We conducted an observational study of all the documented POCUS procedures performed during a half-year period. Data regarding patient condition and the POCUS procedures were collected, as well as data on the use of other diagnostic modalities, mainly formal ultrasound exams (by radiologists) and computed tomography scans and their correlation with the POCUS assessment. 

Results: Fifty-one POCUS exams were performed during the study period, most of which served to define the presence and resolution of a collection – intraabdominal (34%) and subcutaneous (31%). Despite a high rate for formal diagnostic studies (65%), probably due to a relative lack of confidence of surgeons performing the POCUS exams during this initial period, most results (92%) were compatible. 

Conclusions: The ability and availability to perform multiple POCUS exams by the attending physician proved to be a valuable aide to the classical physical and laboratory examinations of surgical patients, and we predict its increasing use in quotidian practice. 

September 2005
D. Kravarusic, E. Dlugy, R. Steinberg, B. Paloi, A. Baazov, E. Feigin and E. Freud
 Background: The minimal access surgery revolution has only just begun to impact on pediatric surgery, thanks mainly to technologic advances and evidence of the benefits of minimally invasive procedures in this population.

Objectives: To review the current status of MAS[1] in a pediatric tertiary care center in Israel, in terms of feasibility, safety, and effect on standard practices.

Methods: We reviewed the files of all children who underwent a MAS procedure in our department during the period April 2002 to July 2004, and compared the findings with those of children treated by standard practices.

Results: A total of 301 procedures were performed in 271 patients: 107 thoracoscopic and 194 laparoscopic. There were no major intraoperative complications. The total conversion rate was 3.65%: 0 for thoracoscopy and 5.6% for laparoscopy (11/194). Twenty-four types of procedures were performed during the study period. The thoracoscopies accounted for 92.24% of all thoracic procedures in the department (107/116), and routine abdominal laparoscopic procedures replaced open surgery in 30–100% of cases (total 44.8%, 194/433).

Conclusions: MAS procedures appear to be safe for a wide range of indications in children. In our center they currently account for a significant percentage of pediatric surgeries. We suggest that the integration of MAS training in the residency programs of pediatric surgeons be made a major long-term goal. The creation of a pediatric MAS study group, which would allow for multi-institutional studies, is especially important in Israel where a relatively large number of pediatric surgery departments handle a small annual number of patients.

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[1] MAS = minimal access surgery

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