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עמוד בית
Wed, 29.05.24

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October 2022
Adrian Duek MD, Emmanuel Lellouche PhD, Sharon Ben Baruch MD, Reut Mashiach BSc, Yafit Segman MD, Gabriel Bryk PhD, Merav Leiba MD

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for approximately 10% of hematological malignancies. The monoclonal immunoglobulin G kappa (IgG-κ) daratumumab can bind to CD38 on MM cells and be detected in serum immunofixation (IF), causing pitfalls in M-protein quantification.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy of mitigating the interference of IgG MM treated with daratumumab.

Methods: Levels of Ig, free light chains (FLC) kappa (κ) and lambda (λ), serum protein electrophoresis (SPE)/IF, and Hydrashift 2/4 assays were assessed following manufacturer's instructions in three patients.

Results: Patient 1 was a 70-year-old male diagnosed with IgG-λ MM. The IF distinguished two monoclonal bands (IgG-κ and IgG-λ). With the Hydrashift assay, the daratumumab–anti-daratumumab immune complex shifted the IgG-κ to the α zone, suggesting that the monoclonal IgG-κ band corresponded to daratumumab. Patient 2 was a 63-year-old male with IgG-κ MM who was receiving daratumumab once every other week. SPE/IF assay revealed a faint monoclonal IgG-κ band in the g zone. A stronger monoclonal band was observed after administration. The IgG-κ band disappeared on the Hydrashift assay, while the daratumumab–anti-daratumumab complex appeared as a broad smear in the α-region. Patient 3, a 63-year-old male diagnosed with IgG-λMM, was receiving daratumumab once every other month. The IF assay showed two distinct bands (IgG-κ and IgG-λ) post-daratumumab administration. The shift to the α zone of the IgG-κ bands on the Hydrashift assay confirmed that the additional band observed post-infusion was due to the daratumumab.

Conclusions: The Hydrashift assay can help distinguish daratumumab from endogenous M-spike.

December 2006
A. Duek, L. Shvidel, A. Braester and A. Berrebi
 Background: Autoimmune disorders often develop during the course of B chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The source of the autoantibodies is still uncertain: either uncontrolled production of the malignant B cells or disturbances of the residual normal B and T cells involved in the immune system.

Objectives: To evaluate immunologic parameters in B-CLL[1] associated with autoimmune disorders. As a hypothesis we postulated that in those cases, the malignant B cells might disclose an activated phenotype pattern leading to the production of autoantibodies.

Methods: In the Registry of the Israel Study Group on CLL that includes 964 patients, we found 115 cases showing a single or a complex of autoimmune disorders. We evaluated the lymphocyte morphology, immunoglobulin G and beta-2-microglobulin serum levels and positivity of the CD38 and FMC7 markers, and compared these values with those of a matched CLL population without autoimmune disorder. 

Results: The main autoimmune disorders encountered were autoimmune hemolytic anemia (55 patients), Evan's syndrome (n=7), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n=15), vasculitis (n=5) and rheumatoid arthritis (n=4). We found atypical prolymphocytic morphology in 22%, high expression of the activation antigens CD38 and/or FMC7 in 30%, and high level of immunoglobulin G (> 1000 mg/dl) and beta-2-microglobulin in 57% and 78% respectively. When compared with a matched CLL population without an autoimmune disorder, these values were statistically significant.

Conclusions: Our data, which show activated lymphocyte morphology, high levels of IgG[2] and beta-2-microglobulin, and increased expression of CD38 and/or FMC7 in a significant number of cases, suggest that some degree of activation of B cells may lead to the occurrence of an autoimmune disorder in CLL.


[1] CLL = chronic lymphocytic leukemia

[2] Ig = immunoglobulin 

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