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עמוד בית
Sun, 21.07.24


IMAJ | volume 25

Journal 5, May 2023
pages: 332-335

Efficacy of Low Doses of Midazolam in Combination with Verbal Sedation during Transesophageal Echocardiography

1 Department of Cardiology, Shamir Medical Center (Assaf Harofeh), Zerifin, Israel 2 Department of Anesthesiology, Shamir Medical Center (Assaf Harofeh), Zerifin, Israel 3 Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel



Traditionally, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been performed under moderate sedation and local pharyngeal anesthesia. Respiratory complications during the TEE can occur.


To test the effectiveness of low-dose midazolam combined with verbal sedation during TEE.


The study comprised 157 consecutive patients who underwent TEE under mild conscious sedation. All patients received local pharyngeal anesthesia and low doses of midazolam combined with verbal sedation. The course of TEE and clinical characteristics of the patients were analyzed.


The mean age was 64 ± 15.3 years, 96 males (61%). In 6% of the patients, low dose midazolam in combination with verbal sedation was insufficient and propofol was administrated. In women under 65 years of age with normal renal function, there was a 40% risk of low-dose midazolam being ineffective (P = 0.0018).


In most patients, TEE can be conducted easily using low-dose midazolam combined with verbal sedation. Some patients need deeper sedation with anesthetic agents like propofol. These patients tended to be younger, in good general health, and more often female.

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