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עמוד בית
Mon, 20.05.24

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

IMAJ | volume 25

Journal 1, January 2023
pages: 8-12

Acquired Hepatocerebral Degeneration: A Case Series of a Rare Condition

1 Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Hadassah Medical Organization and Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel 2 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Israel 3 Department of Neurology, Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson Campus), Petah Tikva, Israel 4 Department of Diagnostic Imaging and 5 Liver Diseases Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel 6 Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

Summary

Background:

Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration (AHD) is a neurologic complication of severe chronic liver disease (CLD) with portosystemic shunts. The proposed etiology is manganese accumulation in the brain tissue, especially in the basal ganglia. Combination of clinical manifestation, mostly extrapyramidal movement disorders, and hyperintensities on T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is diagnostic. Although liver transplantation controversial, it is suggested for AHD.

Objectives:

To depict clinical and neuroimaging characteristics and response to treatments in patients diagnosed with AHD at Sheba Medical Center.

Methods:

Review of patients with AHD diagnosis at the Liver Diseases Center at Sheba Medical Center between 2012 and 2017, data of clinical and neuroimaging, follow-up, and response to treatments, including liver transplantation were recorded.

Results:

Five patients with diagnosis of AHD were identified, median age at diagnosis 55 years (range 45–64 years). Four patients had cirrhosis at the time of AHD diagnosis. The main risk factor for AHD was the presence of portosystemic shunts. The most prevalent clinical manifestations were movement disorders, specifically a combination of extrapyramidal and cerebellar signs including instability, rigidity, tremor, bradykinesia, and cognitive impairment. Brain MRI revealed hyperintensities on T1-weighted images in the basal ganglia in all patients. Administration of antiparkinsonian drugs showed clinical improvement, whereas liver transplantation performed in two patients was not associated to neurological improvement.

Conclusions:

AHD is related to portosystemic shunts. The combination of Parkinsonism and cerebellar signs and MRI pallidal lesions should alert physicians to the diagnosis. The role of liver transplantation in AHD is still controversial.

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