עמוד בית
יום ד, 27.01.21

ינואר 1999

1 בינואר
א' אורנוי, ס' שכטמן וג' ארנון

The Israel Teratogen Information Service: A 10-Year Report 

A. Ornoy, S. Shechtman, J. Arnon


Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical School and Israel Ministry of Health, Jerusalem


The Israel Teratogen Information Service (TIS) was established 10 years ago with the help of the Ministry of Health and the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School. During these 10 years we have had 20,631 calls. We describe the results of our experience in counseling.

There was a gradual increase in the number of calls, which in 1997 reached 4,447. Most calls (84.5%) were during pregnancy, while 12% were prior to pregnancy. In 75.7% the calls were due to drug exposure during pregnancy; 10.9% were due to exposure to X-rays; there was maternal infection in 6.6% and in 5% immunization during pregnancy. The callers were: physicians in 46.6%, nurses 18.9%, pregnant women 39.5%, and 4.8% others.

In 76.6% there was no additional risk to the embryo or fetus and in 17.4% there was a small additional risk of less than 1%; a significant additional risk to the fetus was expected in only 6%. In 3625 pregnant women with known outcome there were 8.9% spontaneous and 9.2% induced abortions. Of the 2968 live-born children, 2.3% were malformed, a rate similar to that among controls.

The information provided by the TIS alleviated the fears most pregnant women have, and reduced unnecessary terminations of pregnancy planned because of unjustified fear of the teratogenic effects of agents to which women were exposed. It reduced the number of children born with congenital anomalies, since pregnancies were interrupted whenever there was a high risk for congenital anomalies.

שבתאי ורסנו, אילנה יעקבי ומילה גרנקין

Proper use of Pressurized Hand-Held Inhalers in Patients with Chronic Airway Obstruction 

Shabtai Varsano, Ilana Jacoby, Mila Garenkin


Asthma Care and Education Unit, Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine, and Epidemiology Unit, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba; and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University


Inhaling drugs via hand-held inhalers in recommended for those with chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD). Approximately 8%-9% of Israel's population use hand-held inhalers, many of them pressurized. Skill in using them and ability of chronic users to learn their proper use have not been assessed.

During 1993 and 1994 we studied 200 patients with bronchial asthma or COPD who regularly used a pressurized hand-held inhaler (PI), but were not trained to use it in our out-patient pulmonary clinic. Only a third were found to be skilled in its use. About half were completely unable to use it properly, and 17% used it in a suboptimal way. Remarkably, only 40% had been taught anything with regard to its use. About 75% of the suboptimal users significantly improved their skill in its use immediately after receiving a single individual teaching and corrective demonstration session. While 15% failed to learn the proper use of the PI, many of those who improved immediately after a single teaching session retained the learned skills for months.

We conclude that the physician who recommends the use of a PI is responsible for the patient's being taught its proper use in a demonstration session. Skill in its use should be reassessed periodically during the entire treatment period.

יאיר בר-אל, רמונה דורסט, יוסף מזר, יונתן רבינוביץ, יעקב לרנר וחיים קנובלר

The Current Compulsory Hospitalization Order and Patients' Rights


Y. Bar-el, R. Durst, J Mazar, J. Rabinowitz, Y. Lerner, H.Y. Knobler


Office of Jerusalem District Psychiatrist; Jerusalem Mental Health Center, Kfar Shaul Hospital; Mental Health Services, Israel Ministry of Health; School of Social Work, Bar-Ilan University; and Falk Institute for Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences, Kfar Shaul (Affiliated with the Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical School)


Israel's "Treatment of Mentally Sick Persons Law" of 1955 was repealed and replaced by the "Treatment of Mental Patients Law" of 1991. Under the latter, the "Compulsory Hospitalization Order" (CHO) defines the new order based on accumulated experience with the old legislation, and on the philosophy that considers the CHO one of the most severely oppressive forms of deprivation of human liberty and rights. The new order sets limits and boundaries for CHO, guarding the rights of those unavoidably committed by force. According to the new law, the district psychiatrist decides upon and issues the order, while the tribunal (District Psychiatric Committee) considers appeals. The order is limited to 1 week, with an option for the district psychiatrist to prolong it on written request for up to 14 days. The tribunal can later prolong the order further.

The objective of this study was to review changes that have occurred following enforcement of the new law in the Jerusalem district. A comparison was made between CHO's issued the year before the new legislation took effect and the year after. The comparison included review of all CHO's and medical files of all patients hospitalized by coercion during 1990 and 1992. It was assumed that there would be a decline in rate and length of hospitalization of patients forced to be committed by the new law.


The main findings refuted this hypothesis. In 1992 there was an increase of 38% in the number of compulsory hospitalizations. This increase derived mainly from increased demands for CHO's from psychiatric emergency rooms. There was also an increase in patients hospitalized by order of the District Psychiatric Committee using its authority under section 10(C) of the law.


Conversely, length of compulsory hospitalization was shorter under the new law.


In light of these findings, it would seem that the new law has only partially fulfilled expectations of reform in individual rights. There is need for further evaluation and follow-up of the CHO in order to determine whether the "Treatment of Mental Patients Law" of 1991 has in fact fulfilled its objectives. Furthermore, it is necessary to determine means, medical or legal, that may possibly advance further the prospective of human rights while maintaining a suitable balance between civil liberties and clinical needs, of over-confinement versus under-treatment, which may lead to neglect or danger.

מנשה ברזילי, אריה ביטרמן, דורית שלג-אייזנברג ונתן פלד

The Fate of Gallstones "Dropped" during Laparoscopy


Menashe Barzilai, Arie Bitterman, Dorit Schlag-Eisenberg, Nathan Peled


Depts. of Radiology and Surgery B, Carmel Medical Center, Haifa


Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered the procedure of choice for removing symptomatic, stone-containing gallbladders. It is estimated that in 30-40% of these operations stone(s) spill into the peritoneal cavity. It was assumed that these "dropped stones" are harmless and are dissolved and absorbed spontaneously. We present a 70-year-old woman in whom such a stone, dropped during laparoscopy, led to formation of an intraperitoneal abscess.

אדוארד רמדאן, דן צרור, רומן בליאבסקי וזאב דרזניק

Tension-Free Repair of Inguinal Hernia with Properitoneal Mesh


Eduard Ramadan, Dan Seror, Roman Belavsky, Zeev Dreznik


Dept. of Surgery A, Rabin Medical Center, Golda Campus (Hasharon Hospital) Petah Tikvah, and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University


The results of properitoneal mesh repair of inguinal hernia were evaluated in 38 of 43 consecutive patients operated by Stoppa's technique. In 33 patients the hernia was bilateral and in 10 unilateral; in 20 it was recurrent. In 33/43 patients the mesh was fixed either by sutures or metal clips. The overall recurrence rate after 22 (14-36) months of follow-up, was 10.5%. This result was composed of a 3.0% recurrence rate in the fixated-mesh group, and 30.0% among those with non-fixated mesh.

The outcome following the Stoppa method for tension-free properitoneal mesh repair of inguinal hernia, compares favorably with those of other methods, provided proper attention is paid to adequate mesh placement and fixation. Further prospective studies are needed to define the role and indications for this technique in the laparoscopic era.

גד שקד, אריה אריש ודוד צייגר

Traumatic Aortocaval Fistula


Gad Shaked, Arie Arisch, David Czeiger


Surgery Dept., Soroka University Hospital, Beer Sheba


Arterio-venous fistula is a relatively rare form of vascular injury. A cof an unusual fistula between aorta and inferior vena cava is presented. Occasionally this type of is difficult to diagnose early. Life-threatening conditions may mandate prompt treatment and the use of damage control strategy. It is also important to diagnose and treat this injury in order to prevent complications. Sudden hemorrhage and congestive heart failure are the major disturbances that result from aortocaval fistula.

יהורם זינגר ופסח שורצמן

Second Degree A-V Block in Graves© Disease


Yoram Singer, Pesach Shvartzman


Dept. of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba


Cardiac tachyarrhythmias are common in thyrotoxicosis. We report an uncommon case of a 53-year-old woman with Grave's disease who developed second degree A-V block while euthyroid on propylthiouracil. The most likely mechanism is an autoimmune response causing infiltration of the cardiac conduction pathways.

שמואל בנאי, אנדרי קרן, נטלי דניאל וישעיהו בנחורין

Use of Abciximab (Reopro) in the Catheterization Laboratory and in Unstable Coronary Syndromes


Shmuel Banai, Andre Keren, Nataly Daniel, Jesaia Benhorin


Heiden Dept. of Cardiology, Bikur Cholim Hospital, Jerusalem


Blockage of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor by Reopro c7E3 Fab-abciximab) has been shown to reduce markedly ischemic complications during and following elective and high-risk coronary intervention CI). Between July ’96 and February ’98, 120 consecutive patients (85 men and 34 women, aged 34-90 - mean 62) received Reopro (20 mg bolus, followed by 10 mg/min for 12-48 hours). 100 were treated with Reopro in the catheterization laboratory, in 76 as prophylactic treatment preceding high-risk CI and in 24 as bailout treatment for acute complications during CI. 20 additional patients were treated in the CCU for acute coronary syndromes, 17 of whom underwent CI 6-48 hours later.

Coronary angiography demonstrated multivessel disease in 66 (56%), and the target lesions were LAD - 77, RCA - 41, LCX - 22, SVG - 6, and 2 unprotected LMCA (total: 148 lesions dilated in 117 patients). Of the 117 CI, 44 were PTCA alone, and 73 included stenting.

Indications for prophylactic Reopro for high risk CI were: acute MI (48 hours), early post-MI angina, unstable AP, and/or complex anatomy with visible thrombus. In this high-risk population the overall success rate (open artery, no MI, discharged alive, no need for urgent re-vascularization) was 97% when Reopro was given prophylactically prior to CI. The success rate was lower (87.5%) when Reopro was given in bailout situations.

In 20 patients with acute coronary syndromes treated in the CCU while receiving maximal combined conventional therapy (including full-dose heparin), all symptoms and dynamic ischemic ECG changes disappeared within minutes following Reopro. 17 underwent successful CI during hospitalization and 3 were treated medically.

Reopro given prior to high risk CI was associated with a very low rate of complications. In a few cases with acute coronary syndromes, Reopro given in the CCU cases immediate relief of myocardial ischemia and reduced the need for urgent coronary intervention.

עידו שולט, נאסר גטאס, יצחק כהן ודוד רימון

Self-Limited Lymphadenopathy Mimicking Lymphoma or Lupus


I. Solt, N. Gatas, Y. Cohen, D. Rimon


Medical Dept. B and Pathology Dept., Western Galilee Regional Hospital, Naharia and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, The Technion, Haifa


Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease in a self-limited lymphadenopathy that can be confused histologically and clinically with lymphoma or systemic lupus erythematosus. It was diagnosed in a 37-year-old woman presenting with fever, cervical, submandibular and axillary lymphadenopathy, weight loss and recurrent urinary tract infections. Lymph node biopsy was consistent with the diagnosis of a histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. Early diagnosis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease can prevent harmful treatment.

15 בינואר
סילביה קוטון, דני כהן ומנפרד גרין

Diarrheal Disease among Care-Givers at Children's Day- Care Centers 

S. Koton, D. Cohen, M.S. Green


Israel Center for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Gertner Institute, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer; Medical Corps, Israel Defense Forces; Dept. of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine; Sakler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University


Diarrheal disease tends to spread from infected children to their families. Due to the increased risk of exposure, children's caregivers in day-care centers may have a higher incidence of diarrhea, particularly when caring for very young children. We therefore examined the incidence of diarrhea and antibodies to Shigella among caregivers in day-care centers, according to age groups of children in their care (<18, 18-34, and >35 months) and in comparison with the general population. 2 studies with a retrospective cohort and seroepidemiological cross-sectional design were carried out. Questionnaires were completed by 401 caregivers in 36% of all WIZO day-care centers. As a measure of past exposure to Shigella, levels of S. sonnei and S. flexneri antibodies were examined in the blood of 110 caregivers (ELISA method).

There was a higher incidence of diarrhea among young children, increasing the potential exposure to diarrheal agents among their caregivers. Nevertheless, no statistically significant differences in diarrhea incidence were found among caregivers of the various age groups during the previous year (p=0.768) and during the previous month (p=0.319), nor in absenteeism due to diarrhea during the last month (p=0.761). Levels of Shigella antibodies were similar among caregivers in all 3 groups. Diarrheal incidence was higher among women in the population control group than among caregivers during the previous year (p=0.005) and month (p=0.067). No statistically significant differences in levels of S. sonnei and S. flexneri antibodies were found between caregivers and women in the control group.

There was no evidence that diarrhea is an occupational hazard for caregivers of young children. An explanation may be the development of protective immunity against common diarrheal agents due to recurrent exposure.

חיים בן-עמי ויהודה עדות

Diagnosis and Treatment of Heart Failure within the Communuity


Haim Ben-Ami, Yehuda Edoute


Dept. of Medicine C, Rambam Medical Center and Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa


Congestive heart failure causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Symptoms and physical findings can help in diagnosis, but have limited sensitivity and specificity. Objective measurement of ventricular function is essential in virtually all patients in whom heart failure is suspected; reversible causes of heart failure must be sought.

Out-patient management includes education and counseling, emphasis on and assessment of compliance with diet, and pharmacological treatment. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are the mainstay of treatment but are underused, and maximal doses are not given, apparently because of concern about side-effects. Diuretics should be administered only as needed to manage fluid overload. Calcium channel blockers are relatively contraindicated in patients with impaired ventricular function. Patient follow-up should be guided by results of the medical history and physical examination. Routine serial testing of ventricular function and exercise performance is discouraged.

ענת בן-עמי, גרא גנדלמן, דוד ארגז וזאב שטגר

Meningitis Due to Streptococcus Bovis Type 2


Anat Ben-Ami, Gera Gandelman, David Ergaz, Zev Shtoeger


Dept. of Medicine B, Kaplan Hospital, Rehovot (Affiliated with the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical School)


Meningitis due to Streptococcus bovis is rare. Only 14 cases having been reported in the English literature. All patients (including the patient described) had an underlying disease or were treated by pharmacological agents that predisposed the patient to the infection. Most were treated by monotherapy with penicillin G (or amoxicillin) and recovered.

We describe a 74-year-old woman who had splenectomy as treatment for hairy cell leukemia 6 months before hospitalization for meningitis and sepsis by S. bovis type 2. She was successfully treated with intravenous amoxicillin. There was neither evidence of endocarditis nor carcinoma of the colon. Although the association between S. bovis meningitis and endocarditis or carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract is not well established, we recommend a full work-up for GI malignancy and endocarditis in every patient with S. bovis meningitis.

רונן גספר, ליאון ארדקיאן, בני ברנר, מיכה פלד ודב לאופר

Ambulatory Oral Procedures on Low-Dose Aspirin


Ronen Gaspar, Leon Ardekian, Benyamin Brenner, Micha Peled, Dov Laufer


Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Thrombosis and Hemostasis Unit, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa


Discontinuation of long-term, low-dose aspirin prior to ambulatory oral surgical procedures was assessed in a blind, controlled prospective study. 50 patients on low-dose aspirin who needed dental extractions, periodontal surgery, or other ambulatory oral surgery were randomly divided into test and control groups. The control patients stopped taking aspirin a week before operation, but in the test group aspirin was continued. Before, during and after surgery bleeding time was tested. Although bleeding time was significantly longer when aspirin was continued, in both groups it was within normal limits. Intraoperative hemorrhage was more frequent in those taking aspirin. Hemostasis control posed no problem and there were no postoperative complications in either group. It is concluded that discontinuing low-dose aspirin prior to elective oral surgery is not justified.

זהבי כהן, ניצה נוימן, עדנה קורצברט, ודים קפולר ואברהם מרש

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Laparoscopy for Non-Palpable Testis


Zahavi Cohen, Niza Newman, Edna Kurzbart, Vadim Kapuller, Abraham J. Mares


Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, Soroka Medical Center and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba


From January 1994 to July 1997, 20 boys 1.5-13 years of age underwent laparoscopic examination and treatment for non-palpable testis. In 1 there was bilateral nonpalpable testis. Only 3 had intra-abdominal testes viable for orchiopexy. In 8 atrophic testicles were removed and in 9 laparoscopic examination revealed intra-abdominal blind ending of the spermatic cord and no testicular tissue.

We conclude that laparoscopy is a useful and safe technique for accurate diagnosis and may avoid additional intervention in treating non-palpable testes. Furthermore, intra-abdominal testes may be managed laparoscopically under the same anesthetic.

א' איל, א' אסיה, א' יורנגסון, ח' נגר וצ' שפירר

Atypical Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis


O. Eyal, A. Asia, U. Yorgenson, H. Nagar, Z. Schpirer


Pediatric and Pediatric Surgery Depts., Dana Hospital, Tel Aviv- Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv


Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is the most common reason for nonbilious vomiting in infants. Its cause is unknown. Hypertrophy of pyloric muscle can progress after birth and reach complete gastric outlet obstruction. Usually symptoms start after the age of 3 weeks. In the past diagnosis was based on history of projectile, nonbilious vomiting and palpation of a pyloric mass. Greater awareness of IHPS and increased use of imaging modalities, mainly abdominal ultrasonography, have resulted in a change in the clinical condition at presentation. The length of illness before admission has decreased and weight loss, dehydration and metabolic abnormalities have become less common. We describe an atypical clinical manifestation of IHPS: bilious vomiting. This atypical presentation may be due to earlier diagnosis.

אהוד לבל ומנחם יצחקי

Lymphoma of the Knee Joint Simulating Patellar Fracture


E. Lebel, M. Itzchaki


Orthopedics Dept., Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem


Fracture of the patella is not uncommon after direct anterior knee trauma. However, there are other medical situations that resemble it radiologicaly. We present a patient mistakenly diagnosed as having a patellar fracture who had primary, solitary, malignant B-cell lymphoma of the knee space eroding the lower pole of the patella. We have found no reports of such a lesion in the literature. Another commbenign condition that might erode adjacent bone is chronic synovitis. Our patient was treated withchemo- and radiotherapy and the lesion fully regressed with no evidence of local or systemic recurrence 1.5 years after diagnosis.

אירינה ציקונובה, יוחנן נשיץ, סימונה קרויטורו, אלישע בר-מאיר ודניאל ישורון

The Challenge of Space-Occupying Lesions in the Iliopsoas Space


Irena Tsikonova, Jochanan E. Naschitz, Simona Croitoru, Elisha Barmeir, Daniel Yeshurun


Depts. of Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Bnai Zion Medical Center, and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, The Technion, Haifa


Mass lesions in the iliopsoas compartment (MLIPC) are uncommon in patients in departments of medicine and their incidence and etiologies are unclear. In a prospective study we diagnosed various MLIPCs in 7 patients during a 10-year period, representing 0.03% of admissions. Symptoms included abdominal or flank pain (4 cases), pain along the thigh (5), diminished psoas muscle strength (2), fever (2), and hypotension (1). MLIPC was suspected on clinical grounds in 5 cases. In all cases the diagnosis was established by computed tomography (CT). Tissue was sampled by needle biopsy in 4 and on surgery in 1. MLIPCs were caused by hemorrhage (2), infection (2), neoplasia (2) and inflammatory mass (1). Often MLIPCs are life-threatening so their timely diagnosis by early CT scan is important.

ערן תמיר, יגאל מירובסקי ונחום הלפרין

Epidural Spinal Abscess


E. Tamir, Y. Mirovsky, N. Halperin


Orthopedics Dept., Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin


A 42-year-old man was admitted for fever and severe low back pain radiating to both legs. On MRI, an epidural spinal abscess from S1 to D10 was seen. Treatment included laminectomy, drainage of the abscess and antibiotics. Recovery was complete without neurological damage. Increased awareness of this disease may lead to diagnosis and treatment.

מיגל יוכטמן, עמוס שטרנברג, ריקרדו אלפיסי, אהוד שטרנברג וצבי פיירמן

Iatrogenic Gallstone Ileus: A New Complication of Bouveret's Syndrome


Miguel Iuchtman, Amos Sternberg, Ricardo Alfici, Ehud Sternberg, Tzvi Fireman


Depts. of Surgery and Gastroenterology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, and Rappaport Medical School, Haifa


Bouveret's syndrome involves gastric outlet obstruction caused by a gallstone in the duodenum. This type of gallstone ileus can be diagnosed and treated endoscopically. Endoscopic stone removal is especially indicated in poor risk patients. A dislodged impacted stone can migrate distally and cause small bowel mechanical obstruction. We report a 51-year-old woman who underwent endoscopic duodenal stone manipulation which resulted in small bowel obstruction.

הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
כתובתנו: ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303